In one study in particular, a group of researchers found that merely 1 hour of gaming was enough to improve visual selective attention, which is actually much more important than the name makes it seem. Manag. On a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (completely), participants rated the intensity of 20 adjectives. 3. Using video games to distract oneself from stress was clearly connected to a high level of psychological symptoms. Kessler, R. C., Amminger, G. P., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Lee, S., and Ustun, T. B. In reality, it’s more of a mixed bag. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association. This study aims to shed light on these important relations using a large sample. Some of the most popular games include violent images of people or animals being killed. Netw. Thus, action games seem to be both rewarding and a source of frustration. Cyberpsychol. Researchers have also continued to find that violent video game use is associated with decreases in socially desirable behavior such as prosocial behavior, empathy, and moral engagement (e.g., German grades are assessed on a scale that ranges from 1 (excellent) to 6 (insufficient). Playing video games mimics the kinds of sensory assaults humans are programmed to associate with danger. Besides investigating the links between potentially problematic video game use and psychological functioning as well as between reasons for playing video games and psychological functioning, it is relevant to also look at which game genres individuals prefer. Addict. They rated each of 10 reasons separately on Likert scales ranging from 1 (never) to 4 (very often). J. Behav. In a 2013 study, The University of California San Francisco discovered that 3-D video games can improve the memory of older adults. Front. Associations between potentially problematic video gaming and psychological functioning. 42, 630–638. Moreover, gamers’ reasons for playing and their preferred game genres were differentially related to psychological functioning with the most notable findings for distraction-motivated players as well as action game players. J. 30, 344–360. Rubenstein, C., and Shaver, P. R. (1982). The AICA-S, the Scale for the Assessment of Internet and Computer game Addiction (Wölfling et al., 2016), was used to assess participants’ gaming behavior with regard to potential problematic use. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.11.020, Schneider, L. A., King, D. L., and Delfabbro, P. H. (2018). Psychol. On the other hand, poor psychological functioning seems to be a unique risk factor for potentially problematic video gaming. Growing up and playing a game that teaches you that violence is the answer, may have negative social effects on a child. (2009). Behav. Comput. Questionnaires on personality and psychological health as well as video gaming habits were administered to 2,734 individuals (2,377 male, 357 female, Mage = 23.06, SDage = 5.91). Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: a longitudinal analysis. While it can be hard as parents to look beyond the day-to-day struggles with gaming kids, it’s helpful to hear about the potential upsides. The study found that there was a significant effect of … Sci. Psychol. With that being said, here is what we know thus far. Hum. Reliabilität und Validität der Skala zum Computerspielverhalten [Reliability and validity of the scale for the assessment of pathological computer-gaming]. Similarly, preferred game genre was related to participants’ age (see Supplementary Table S3). Behav. On top of that, for every study that finds violent video games to be harmful, there is another study showing that there simply are no effects. These findings are in line with those of prior work (e.g., Kuss and Griffiths, 2012; Milani et al., 2018). Effect sizes have varied widely across studies (Ferguson et al., 2011). Narcissus plays video games. In sum, several reasons for playing video games were differentially associated with psychological functioning. (2015). A meta-analysis of video game influences on children’s and adolescents’ aggression, mental health, prosocial behavior, and academic performance. Using Apperley’s (2006) classification of game genres, we categorized the subgenres into the main genres action (M = 2.54, SD = 0.84), strategy (M = 2.13, SD = 0.80), role-playing (M = 2.01, SD = 0.73), and simulation (M = 1.58, SD = 0.44). (2006). A similar but somewhat less extreme picture was revealed for gamers who played video games in order to have something to talk about. The bad effects of video games are mostly related to the amount of play and the game content. 5 Facts About Americans and Video Games. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0289. Personal. In addition to looking at problematic video game use and its relation to psychological functioning, it is relevant to also focus on why individuals play video games. New York, NY: Basic Books. 2017 Global Games Market Report: Trends, Insights, and Projections Toward 2020. Finally, we explored the unique contribution of each measure of psychological functioning to the prediction of potentially problematic video gaming. Psychol. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0229, Mihara, S., and Higuchi, S. (2017). Participants indicated how many offline friends and offline acquaintances they had (r = 0.44, p < 0.001) as well as how many online friends and online acquaintances they had (r = 0.33, p < 0.001). Working towards an international consensus on criteria for assessing internet gaming disorder: a critical commentary on Petry et al. But even they will admit that the increased aggression is quite minimal, and calling the children violent would be a stretch. 87, 212–218. Coping (Laconi et al., 2017), social interaction, and competition were among the main reasons for gaming among males but not among females (Lucas and Sherry, 2004). In sum, our results speak to the idea that individuals with different levels of psychological functioning differ in their choices of game genres and vice versa. Diagnostica 49, 73–82. Interestingly what they did find was that the participants reported games were able to help them cope with feelings of boredom, loneliness and stress, and that their wellbeing improved because of this. Z. Klin. A total of N = 2,891 individuals (2,421 male, 470 female) with a mean age of 23.17 years (SD = 5.99, Range: 13–65) participated in our study. A cluster for unclassified subgenres (M = 1.54, SD = 0.39) was added to additionally account for such subgenres as jump’n’runs and games of skill. In addition, we identified unique predictors of potentially problematic video game use. Thus, differentiating between short- and long-term perspectives may help us understanding the differential correlates of intensive video gaming. (2014). Cronbach’s alpha was excellent (α = 0.88). Comportementale Cogn. 10, 646–666. CyberPsychol. Psychiatry Clin. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Int. Why do you play World of Warcraft? Finally, the researchers found that sustained attention improved as well. These results on reasons and genres may help to explain conflicting findings of former studies, because in our work we examined various reasons for playing, several game genres, and various aspects of psychological functioning simultaneously. doi: 10.1007/s11031-006-9051-8, Scharkow, M., Festl, R., Vogelgesang, J., and Quandt, T. (2015). Cyberpsychol. Video gaming is an extremely popular leisure-time activity with more than two billion users worldwide (Newzoo, 2017). J. Behav. This isn’t necessarily a new idea, but it is newly confirmed. In this scenario, it can be rather difficult to single out video games as the main cause of their aggression. Correlations among social anxiety, self-esteem, impulsivity, and game genre in patients with problematic online game playing. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2006.9.772, Keywords: computer games, video gaming behavior, game genres, coping, psychological health, Citation: von der Heiden JM, Braun B, Müller KW and Egloff B (2019) The Association Between Video Gaming and Psychological Functioning. Soc. 61, 216–224. Schwarzer, R., and Schulz, U. Younger gamers seemed to prefer action games, older players more so games of skill (Scharkow et al., 2015). Int. Individ. A great amount of time and money has gone into the research of video games and their effects on players, especially adolescents and children. 7, 571–581. Hum. Cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies of Internet gaming disorder: a systematic review of the literature. A qualitative investigation of problem gambling as an escape-based coping strategy. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.041, Calvert, S. L., Appelbaum, M., Dodge, K. A., Graham, S., Nagayama Hall, G. C., Hamby, S., et al. New York, NY: Wiley. Behav. The american psychological association task force assessment of violent video games: science in the service of public interest. Prevalence of internet addiction in the general population: results from a German population-based survey. J. (1970). 27, 144–152. doi: 10.1097/YCO.0b013e32816ebc8c, Király, O., Urbán, R., Griffith, M. D., Ágoston, C., Nagygyörgy, K., Kökönyei, G., et al. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5, 5th Edn. Cyberpsychol. In the past few years, video game addiction has officially been confirmed as a real disorder, and should be taken seriously. On top of that, for every study that finds violent video games to be harmful, there is another study showing that there simply are no effects. Games 360 U.S. Report. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.02.023, Rehbein, F., Staudt, A., Hanslmaier, M., and Kliem, S. (2016). 17:e88. Schwarzer, R., and Jerusalem, M. (1995). Distraction-motivated gamers preferred coping strategies such as self-blame, behavioral disengagement, self-distraction, denial, substance use, venting, and acceptance, but they neglected active coping and planning. 45, 1573–1578. JH analyzed the data. Also, we expected to find people’s preferred game genres (e.g., strategy, action) to be differentially related to their psychological functioning (Park et al., 2016). The relationship between online video game involvement and gaming-related friendships among emotionally sensitive individuals. However, in our study we did not aim at making a diagnosis, but at having a closer look at potentially problematic gaming behavior and its correlates in a non-clinical sample. BMC Neurosci. 9, 772–775. The 4 items were answered on 5- to 6-point Likert-type scales. We posted links to our online questionnaire on various online forums as well as on popular online game sites. 12, 353–359. (2014). Netw. Thus far, this seems to be the only conclusive negative side effect of video games. (2018). doi: 10.1556/2006.6.2017.086, Ferguson, C. J. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.54.6.1063. More and more researchers have suggested a continuum between engagement (Charlton and Danforth, 2007; Skoric et al., 2009) and pathological gaming/addiction, instead of a categorical perspective. 71, 425–444. Cyberpsychol. Psychiatry 20, 359–364. Age of onset of mental disorders: a review of recent literature. Soc. Comput. For this purpose, we examined psychological functioning by employing various variables such as psychological symptoms, coping strategies, and social support. 23, 1531–1548. (2015). On multiple occasions the industry has endured what should have been crushing blows. Most scientific studies in this area of research have focused on the extent of video game play and its diverse correlates. Med. Now, they have science to back it up. However, potentially problematic video game use was clearly positively associated with the experience of both positive and negative affect while playing. As long as you are responsibly enjoying video games, that is to say first going about your daily life then playing video games, then by all means play as much as you desire. Negative Effects Of Video Games. The Entertainment Software Association, a video game trade association in the United States, released a statement this week saying: “The World Health Organization knows that common sense and objective research prove video games are not addictive. No effects higher gaming time of males be explained by gender specific genre preferences data before aggregation incentive! They rated each of 10 reasons separately on Likert scales ranging from 1 ( never ) to (. Addictions and behavioral addictions i ’ m sure this one will shock a psychological effects of video games people, but it real... 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