Middle-sized gardens will have a single lake with one or more streams coming into the lake, with bridges crossing the streams, or a single long lake divided into two bodies of water by a narrow channel crossed by a bridge. It was located on the side of a mountain, and included a series of terraces connected by galleries, along with a lake where boats in the form of blue dragons navigated. According to Ji Cheng's 16th century book Yuanye, "The Craft of Gardens," "borrowing scenery" (jiejing) was the most important thing of a garden. Throughout its lengthy advancement, it slowly developed right into a design which showcased timberwork integrating rock sculpting, rammed planet building, container arc structures as well as several various other strategies. Some gardens created the impression of lakes by places smooth areas of white sand, bordered by rocks, in courtyards. In smaller classical gardens, a single scholar rock represents a mountain, or a row of rocks represents a mountain range. The orchid was the symbol of nobility, and of impossible love, as in the Chinese expression "a faraway orchid in a lonely valley." Another Song dynasty garden still in existence is the Master of the Nets Garden in Suzhou. Sometimes a canal is wide, sometimes narrow. In the moonlight these looked like real lakes. Limestone rocks that have taken strange shapes due to erosion are among the most valued rocks for Chinese gardeners. The garden was vast, with over a hundred pavilions and structures, but it was most famous for its collection of exotic-shaped rocks and plants, which he collected all over China. The Khan himself goes every week to see his birds sitting in mew, and sometimes he rides through the park with a leopard behind him on his horse's croup; and then if he sees any animal that takes his fancy, he slips his leopard at it, and the game when taken is made over to feed the hawks in mew. It was built in 1342, and took its name from the collection of fantastic and grotesque assemblies of rocks, taken from Lake Tai. A notable example was the Jante Valley Garden of the poet-painter and civil servant Wang Wei (701–761). Principal Pavilions are for receiving guests and celebrating big holidays with a large crowd. For the past 3,000 years, everyone in China, from emperors and government officials to scholars and poets, have built their own Chinese garden. "[29], Chinese classical gardens varied greatly in size. In the center was the Pavilion of Study, his library, with five thousand volumes. Some designers opt for a simple rock garden, while others construct miniature mountains from a collection of rocks. [72], A Japanese monk named Eisai (1141–1215) imported the Rinzai school of Zen Buddhism from China to Japan, which led to the creation of a famous and unique Japanese gardening style, the Zen garden, exemplified by the garden of Ryōan-ji. Some buildings have connected hallways and pavilions, each of which will have a view of a different area of the garden. The Venetian traveler Marco Polo is believed to have visited Xanadu in about 1275, and described the garden this way: "Round this Palace a wall is built, inclosing a compass of 16 miles, and inside the Park there are fountains and rivers and brooks, and beautiful meadows, with all kinds of wild animals (excluding such as are of ferocious nature), which the Emperor has procured and placed there to supply food for his gerfalcons and hawks, which he keeps there in mew. The lake or pond has an important symbolic role in the garden. He described how the Chinese gardens had grottos, artificial hills and rocks piled to imitate nature, and did not arrange their gardens geometrically. The garden of the floating cup (liubei tang), with small pavilions and artificial winding streams, became extremely popular in both imperial and private gardens. Chinese Architect Studios – Design Office Listings. Jean-Denis Attiret, "Letter a M. d'Assaut," cited in Che Bing Chiu, Jardins de Chine, p. 122. In the 4th century BC, a tale in the Classic of Mountains and Seas described a peak called Mount Penglai located on one of three islands at the eastern end of the Bohai Sea, between China and Korea, which was the home of the Eight Immortals. Suzhou Jin Ji Lake Project. They had thatch roofs (e.g. The history of Chinese garden architecture can be traced back to the Shang and Zhou dynasties (16th century BC - 221 BC). The Summer Palace concentrates the beauty and essence of Chinese garden architecture and boasts a large collection of valuable cultural relics. Emperor Xuanzong built a magnificent imperial garden, the Garden of the Majestic Clear Lake, near Xi′an, and lived there with his famous concubine, Consort Yang. Of these there are more than 200 gerfalcons alone, without reckoning the other hawks. King Zhou and his friends and concubines drifted in their boats, drinking the wine with their hands and eating the roasted meat from the trees. [55] The names of the Surging Waves Garden and the Garden of Meditation in Suzhou are taken from lines of Chinese poetry. 2020 popular Chinese Garden Architecture trends in Home & Garden, Toys & Hobbies, Home Improvement with Chinese Garden Architecture and Chinese Garden Architecture. Suzhou New District Commercial Plaza image from architects. Chinese Garden Architecture by Nanjing University of the Arts. Chinese gardens aren’t just thrown together. Thousands of images added daily. Suddenly the spirit, detached from the world of small things, is animated and seems to penetrate to the interior of a painting, and to promenade there..."[54]. [21], Despite the Mongol invasion, the classical Chinese scholar's garden continued to flourish in other parts of China. During the Qing dynasty, the Ming rock gardens were considered too artificial and the new mountains were composed of both rocks and earth.[41]. They can also be seen as an improvement on nature; one from which the light of human artistic genius shines. A water element is also a welcome complement to the rock garden and mountains. For example, some gardens purposely have a view of a mountain from one of its many scenes. For scholars, the pine was the emblem of longevity and tenacity, as well as constance in friendship. It also makes good use of the principle of the "borrowed view," (jiejing) carefully framing views of the surrounding mountains and a famous view of a distant pagoda. To the north was an artificial lake, with a small island, with a picturesque fisherman's hut. Chinese gardens are constructed to recreate and miniaturize larger natural landscapes. The Chinese garden architecture is one of the four essential factors for garden landscaping. See Michel Baridon. [8], After the fall of the Han dynasty, a long period of political instability began in China. The Flying Rainbow Bridge in the Humble Administrator's Garden. The Garden of the Monastery of the Celestial Rulers in Luoyang was famous for its peonies; the entire city came when they were in bloom. Of the flowers in the Chinese garden, the most appreciated were the orchid, peony, and lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). Suzhou is the heart and origin of the world’s oldest and most well known classical Chinese Gardens. "One admires the art with which this irregularity is carried out. Classical gardens traditionally have these structures: In addition to these larger halls and pavilions, the garden is filled with smaller pavilions, (also called ting),or “room”, which are designed for providing shelter from the sun or rain, for contemplating a scene, reciting a poem, taking advantage of a breeze, or simply resting. For example, Louis Le Comte, who visited China on a scientific expedition for King Louis XIV in 1685. Ji Cheng wrote: "In the heart of the tumult of the city, you should choose visions that are serene and refined: from a raised clearing, you look to the distant horizon, surrounded by mountains like a screen; in an open pavilion, a gentle and light breeze invades the room; from the front door, the running water of spring flows toward the marsh. Top Places You Should Visit in China's Warm Spring, Top 5 Places You Should Visit in China in Summer, Chinese Gardens — Harmonious and Relaxing, the most romantic garden in Beijing: Landiao Lavender Garden. The other essential elements of a scholar garden were plants, trees, and rocks, all carefully composed into small perfect landscapes. In China, water symbolizes communication and dreams. In literature, gardens were frequently the subject of the genre of poetry called "Tianyuan", literally 'fields and gardens,' which reached its peak in the Tang dynasty (618–907) with such poets as Wang Wei (701–761). Streams come into the lake, forming additional scenes. Plants – which provide beauty, texture and meaningArchitecture such as pavilions and teahouses provide a place for reflection, conversation and refreshments. 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