0000005736 00000 n 0000010897 00000 n There are two fundamental types of composting aerobic and anaerobic: 4.1 Aerobic Composting is the decomposition of organic wastes in the presence of oxygen (air); products from this process include CO2, NH3, water and heat. 0000001747 00000 n Thus, an on-site food waste composting The break­down of organic mat­ter is a nor­mal part of nature’s cycle. 0000013001 00000 n 0000005715 00000 n 14.4.4 TemperatureThe aerobic decomposition of a gram mole of glucose releases 484 to 674 kilo calories (kcal) energy under controlled conditions, while only 26 kcal are released when it is decomposed anaerobically. Earthworms, centipedes, millipedes and springtails are some of the insects that aid the composting process. Contents 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Definitions 2.3 The Composting process 2.3.1 Principles of composting 2.3.2 Factors influencing the composting process 2.3.3 Feedstocks for composting throughout the composting process, in the range of 8.3-8.5 (figure 1). The alkaline pH is important parameter to evaluate compost maturity and stability. 0000009760 00000 n Generally, compost contains a mixture of pectin, hemicelluloses, cellulose, lignin, etc. Factors affecting aerobic composting Aeration. During anaerobic composting as the released heat is quite small and as part of it is lost from the surface only a marginal rise in temperature occurs.This increased temperature results in increased rate of biological activity and hence results in faster stabilisation of the material. Research workers have reported the optimum value to range between 26-31 depending upon other environmental conditions.The C/N ratio considers the available carbon as well as the available nitrogen while the available carbon and nitrogen in the MSW may vary from sample to sample. Factors Affecting Composting (2009). 266-275. When the decomposing mass is disturbed, as during turning of windrows, the resultant heat loss results in drop in temperatures. Each of these factors has the potential to significantly affect the The pH of the compost should be alkaline throughout and end of the composting process. Factors Associated with Adoption of Household Composting. Participants from periurban locations were 3.8 times more likely to engage in composting as compared to those in the urban locations (aOR = 3.81, 95% CI (1.78–8.16), value = 0.001). Compost Science & Utilization: Vol. 0000002956 00000 n Factors Affecting the Composting Process 1. When the compost pH exceeds 7.5, gaseous losses of ammonia are more likely to occur. the effects of composting conditions on contaminant degradation, many studies of traditional composting processes have been reported. Manual on “Municipal Solid Waste Management”. 0000014014 00000 n 0000008795 00000 n 5 Composting 12-18 5.1 Purpose of Composting 12 5.2 What Happens During Composting 12 5.3 Factors Affecting the Composting Process 13 5.3.1 Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratio 14 5.3.2 Moisture 14 5.3.3 Temperature 14-15 5.3.4 Aeration 15 5.3.5 Surface Area 15 5.3.6 pH 16 5.4 Decomposing Organisms 16-18 5.4.1 Bacteria 17 Under properly controlled conditions temperatures are known to rise beyond 70oC in aerobic composting. 0000006757 00000 n According to Scott, during aerobic composting when the material is turned twice in 12 days Entamoeba histolytica is killed and the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides are killed in 36 days when turned thrice. 0000001550 00000 n The studies carried out at NEERI have shown that the destruction of these organisms is not ensured under anaerobic conditions.Knoll has proved that the high temperature and long retention during aerobic composting along with the antibiotic effect results in destruction of parasites and pathogens. Main Factors of Composting Process. 0000001322 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� Each of these factors has the 0000011976 00000 n 0000010875 00000 n Factors Affecting The Composting Process All organic material will eventually decompose. Definition of Compost: Compost is defined in the Oxford Advanced Learner’s dictionary as the process of mixture of decayed organic matter, manure, etc. In order to make manure compost faster and better, people also need to know the main factors affecting manure composting and fermentation process. The temperature range of 50o to 60oC is thus optimum for nitrification and cellulose degradation.The high temperature also helps in destruction of some common pathogens and parasites (Table 14.1). Soil containing 17,000 mg (kg dry soil)−1 mineral oil and grease (MOG) was composted with maple leaves and alfalfa. Category: Composting 14.4.4 Temperature The aerobic decomposition of a gram mole of glucose releases 484 to 674 kilo calories (kcal) energy under controlled conditions, while only 26 kcal are released when it is decomposed anaerobically. FACTORS AFFECTING THE . Municipal solid waste is known to have good insulation properties and hence the released heat results in increase in temperature of the decomposing mass. Aeration is the source of O, and, thus, indispensable for aerobic composting. 0000004599 00000 n Where the supply of O is not sufficient, the growth of aerobic micro-organisms is limited, resulting in slower decomposition. However, the natural process can be accelerated by controlling the process factors. added to soil to improve the growth of plants. The relative preponderance of one species over another depends upon the constantly changing food supply, temperature and substrate conditions. The effects of the C/N ratio, CaCO3 and PO4 addition, and temperature profile on reactor-based composting of weathered hydrocarbon-contaminated soil were evaluated in a series of 30-day tests in temperature-controlled mini-composters. Aerobic composting requires large amounts of O, particularly at the initial stage. A composting matrix is an ecosystem of interdependent interactions between biotic and abiotic fa ctors that cause degradation of organic matter. As some of the heat loss occurs from the exposed surface, the actual rise in temperature will be slightly less. In this article we will discuss about:- 1. 0000007813 00000 n 0000009782 00000 n Whenever the C/N ratio is less than the optimum, carbon source such as straw, sawdust, paper are added while if the ratio is too high, the sewage sludge, slaughter house waste, blood etc. Given even remotely accept­able mate­ri­als and con­di­tions, com­post will occur over time. are added as a source of nitrogen. H����oE��XJ"+V8�D�v�x��?fwR )�T������:Y��b; Active composting is the period of vigorous microbial activity during which readily degradable material is decom-posed as well as some of the more decay-resistant material, such as cellulose. 0000007030 00000 n In order to control and optimize the biokinetics of the composting process to produce a compost of desired quality, it is important to understand the factors that inÀuence the process. This chapter examines the factors that affect the composting process. Under natural conditions, the decomposition process can extend over a period of months or even years, depending on climatic conditions. Participants aged 46 years and above were 2.7 times more likely to engage in composting (aOR = 2.69, 95% CI (1.06–6.80), value = 0.037). During these steps, different organic compounds are degraded into simple forms. 0000001725 00000 n Previous study on effect of temperature on mesophilic digester reports that for each Moisture content be-tween 50 and 60% usually results in the highest degra-dation rate of the material to be composted (Suler et … In addition, the proper mix of ingredients is required for optimal composting conditions (e.g., moisture level, C:N, porosity). o�`η >�����Y, ��Y�{>��2��n8u������fKTEwVZ(��{mt �6����a�ŀN�c@��� ���'أ��*o���|�����G�?Ʌ�a���"��Ph�EVD�?��D5�ެ�vz�Ba��>���T(���`�dPI.3�|�2��A9o&����S���--3��8��؝��. The composting process can be divided into two main periods: (1) active composting and (2) curing. 0000001343 00000 n The acidic pH affects the rate of respiration of microbes and decreases the rate of degradation. Major factors affecting anaerobic composting Temperature Temperature is a major limiting factor in anaerobic composting process. A minimum oxygen concen- trailer << /Size 63 /Info 30 0 R /Root 32 0 R /Prev 74040 /ID[<7828eb031b29a99a72b26ef7ff6470ee><7828eb031b29a99a72b26ef7ff6470ee>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 32 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 29 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /S 154 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 62 0 R >> stream COMPOSTING PROCESS . Carbon Nitrogen ratio: carbon and nitrogen are the most important among various elements required by microorganism decomposition. Certain materials such as dairy manure and paper processing wastes can raise pH, while food process - ing wastes can lower pH. Process of Composting 3. Which Factors in Composting Operation? 31 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 33 /H [ 1042 301 ] /L 74788 /E 14371 /N 8 /T 74050 >> endobj xref 31 32 0000000016 00000 n Dec 27, 2014 - From beginners to experts this web site is designed to provide composting information and links to other people involved in all forms of composting. All natural organic material eventually decomposes. Thus, if the process is so controlled that the temperature is kept between 50o to 60 o C for 5 to 7 days, destruction of pathogens and parasites can be ensured.14.4.5 Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) RatioThe organisms involved in stabilisation of organic matter utilise about 30 parts of carbon for each part of nitrogen and hence an initial C/N ratio of 30 is most favourable for composting. From home composting to compost tea, compost toilets, large scale composting, vermi and compost use. The optimal pH range is 6.0 to 7.5 for bacteria and 5.5 to 8.0 for fungi. The abiotic and biotic factors playing key role in the composting … �Y-���T�/,�.�6��#t�oA�h�-���-�Z0� 3. Definition of Compost 2. 0000004621 00000 n Facultative and obligate forms of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi are most active in this process. Factors Affecting Air Pycnometer Performance For its Use in the Composting Process. Factors Affecting the Composting Process Controlling the process factors can accelerate the natural composting process. Roles. 0000000987 00000 n 0000002850 00000 n H�b```f``b`e``�`�c@ >�(� A�#W�?�ғ��5�Z êS�@Tq���"s�����њ}m{���J^��n[���Z�{%�e^pz� ((l��BH0�� I%U�� ��T+�@ 1. segregation of refuse and salvage 2. grinding or shredding of the material 3. carbon-nitrogen ratio 4. blending or proportioning of wastes 5. moisture content 2. grinding or shredding of the material 3. carbon-nitrogen ratio 4. blending or proportioning of wastes 5. moisture content 0000013022 00000 n 0000008774 00000 n 0000001042 00000 n 3.3. Factors 4. �$~ -��`Qnq���V��lcw`�h`�`/~y ���� ���u̚�C�:9@: �"9� endstream endobj 62 0 obj 195 endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 29 0 R /Resources 34 0 R /Contents [ 36 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 34 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] /Font << /F1 48 0 R /F4 40 0 R /F6 37 0 R /F8 38 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS2 60 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS1 41 0 R >> >> endobj 35 0 obj 1025 endobj 36 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 35 0 R >> stream Oxygen and Aeration Aerobic composting consumes large amounts of oxygen, particularly during the initial stages. Composting may contribute to the greenhouse effect because carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (NH 4) and nitrous oxide (NO 2) will be emitted to the atmosphere during composting. Optimum temperature considered for optimum growth of mesophilic digester for biogas production is 350C. Composting is a living, dynamic process, thus the maintenance of a composting system requires more attention and training than standard recycling and disposal alternatives. By Stella Otto | Published October 11, 2013. The relative preponderance of one species over another depends upon the constantly changing food supply, temperature and substrate conditions. ��Ÿ�?%�9��b��͌ =�Ȟ�̼7����뗑8�u;�t;J�T�*��֙�bE"�C�q,�Q�s|���7"1?? Factors affecting Composting Process - 2. 0000003064 00000 n oɰ/�A.�����n��K�Z In composting, the substrate is the waste to be composted and, similar to any other biological process, the chemical and physical characteristics of the substrate are critical in the viability of the process. 0000004413 00000 n 0000011997 00000 n 17, No. If the supply of oxygen is limited, the composting process may turn anaerobic, which is a much slower and odorous process. 0000014144 00000 n ��K�/���X���%�/�'����nn �p�^/�İ��7����cZ�o7w�8ػ����������k� composting process is influenced by factors such as temperature, oxygen supply (i.e. Factors that Affect the Composting Process. Factors affecting Composting Process -1. 4, pp. The speed at which it decomposes depends on these factors: Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratios Carbon and nitrogen are the two fundamental elements in composting, and their ratio (C:N) is significant. However, if the temperature rise is very high, due to inactivation of the organisms & enzymes the rate of activity may decrease. Under properly controlled conditions temperatures are known to rise beyond 70oC in  aerobic composting. aeration) and moisture content. Request PDF | Chapter 4 Factors that affect the process | This chapter examines the factors that affect the composting process. A review of the effects of different composting processes on chemical and biological parameters in the finished compost or compost extract. 14.4 FACTORS AFFECTING THE COMPOSTING PROCESS 14.4.1 Organisms Aerobic composting is a dynamic system wherein bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and other biological forms are actively involved. 0000004520 00000 n No matter what your interest is, you'll find something here worth you time. View Training_Material_Composting_Vermicomposting.pdf from ADMI 0000 at Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá. The whole process requires around 6-8 months and the material becomes ready to use in farms. The factors affecting the composting process are as follows: Organisms: Aerobic composting is a dynamic system where in bacteria actinomycetes, fungi and other biological forms are actively involved. The studies carried out have shown that the activity of cellulose enzyme reduces above 70oC and the optimum temperature range for nitrification is 30o to 50oC beyond which nitrogen loss is known to occur. Fin­ished com­post ready for the fruit garden. Category: Composting 14.4.1 Organisms Aerobic composting is a dynamic system wherein bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and other biological forms are actively involved. Rise in temperature will be slightly less and obligate forms of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and biological. Can extend over a period of months or even years, depending on climatic conditions are involved! 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