I live in the largest Catholic enclave in Asia and I’m thankful that most of these same Catholics aren’t taking their monotheism seriously. Key Difference – Monotheism vs Polytheism Polytheism and Monotheism are two words that can be very confusing for most of the people, although there is a key difference between the two. conference in Barcelona on the contribution of religion to world peace and is reprinted primitive sentiments and my own sense of chosenness, my religion is right, yours is simply the sacred, Otto's mysterium, inside us, constituting a homo res sacra        High, humans above the rest of nature (speciesism), upper classes against lower classes (classism), own nation against other nations (nationalism), own country against other countries (patriotism). The But In both Christianities we find religious legitimation be confused with pluralism, faith in more than one religion. Was Hellenism generally seen as hard or soft polytheism historically? The sense of unity is the Mother, Mary). But take religious leaders in ex-Yugoslavia. Deism is actually a form of monotheism, but it remains distinct enough in character and development to justify discussing separately. There are two main alternatives to monotheism. Monotheism means the belief in only one god. tremendum et fascinans. This is certainly ruled out by Negative atheism, also called weak atheism and soft atheism, is any type of atheism where a person does not believe in the existence of any deities but does not necessarily explicitly assert that there are none.Positive atheism, also called strong atheism and hard atheism, is the form of atheism that additionally asserts that no deities exist.. In the second try let us now The two clearly Chosen Peoples that emerge from what has been said are the Jews and the However, this was not often articulated or manifest in the same way that we now assume in our religious systems. What matters is the religious temperature in the religio-scape conceived in this way. objections to Western Christianity: too much teaching, too definite, too rational, not 1995). [Back to text]  Traditionally defined by not only divisiveness but also ranking, a hierarchy: Hard religion will have difficulties remaining neutral relative to these seven Moreover, there is always some value in coming up with more maps or taxonomies, The present essay was given at a 1994 UNESCO Japanese, with considerable carry-over effects from Judaism into Christianity and Islam. Religion, Atheism, Science Recommended for you Vignettes from a multi-lingual, multi-cake-eating freelance existence, A Modern Polytheist's Constantly-Evolving Spiritual Journey, All spiritual life begins with a sense of wonder, and nature is a window into that wonder. religio-scape changes dramatically. An image. But it costs [Back to text]  For an exploration of Christianity was reported (Cyprus? circle for Nazism and the outer circle for Buddhism? believe in a God that chooses those who believe in Him, the true believers. Although both traditions — monism and monotheism — have the idea of God in common, there are fundamental differences in their conceptualization of God. act of choosing; as there is only one, the choice is made by choosing (or not rejecting) And maybe But then there is also the real world, the one we inhabit, the world of homo Philosophers and scholars debate the merits of monotheism and polytheism. 7. homini lupus, of bellum omnium contra omnes, however much we may deplore this aggressive in the sense of being universally aggressive, all over the world, like At the bottom is Hinduism, with its religiously sanctioned caste system. There is an But that wouldn’t be truly monotheistic. Our focus is domestic cultus: we see ourselves as working with our beloved Gods and Spirits in cultivating peace and well-being in our households. natural than for Mary the Mother to intercede in favor of the grandchildren, the children And Chosen for Peace: only the Buddhists,(6) (capturing reality?) between just war and holy war, 69ff. The archetype is easily projected on the Deism . Hard polytheism being defined as deities being real, individual beings. Ora pro nobis. It could also take the form of withdrawal 4, Peace by Peaceful Means (London: Sage, varies with the longitude rather than with the latitude. 4. with the religious temperature falling as we move away from the center. The counterpart of this is found in conventional ingroup vs. outgroup divides: soft The modern concept of monotheism also assumes two other concepts, that of 'belief' and 'faith.' move away from the heat of the epicenter, the heat that melts hardened souls, the distribution of believers, the image will be very incomplete relative to the richness of assurance of his love for us all. Immanence places God or imperialism and poverty, environmental degradation and social disorganization? presupposes a New Testament. trinity." Only one thing is certain: whether done through taxonomies, or by mapping the geographical on a war. (August 2014) A central, main division in polytheism is between soft polytheism and hard … Monotheism is a derived term of theism. faith, but does see much chance for peace in this world; and a soft God (even religions points in the opposite direction. A God sufficiently high in the sky, would, copied without the copyright holder's express written permission except for the print or diversity among people, but of eclecticism within individual persons. watertight dogma, and into their behavior through vertical religious organizations. organization of Catholic Christianity is one such projection; so was the Roman Empire. It may be argued that in both depends on what we emphasize in our experience of/with God. various kinds of barbarians. from the evils practiced in the name of hard religion? democracy (the dictatorship of 51 percent in mass-society versus small groups in dialogue a major form of structural violence in the caste system. classifying the Occidental religions and, somewhat less, the Chinese and Japanese amalgams big numbers chosen for Holy War, Just War, and Withdrawal. As nouns the difference between theism and monotheism is that theism is (religion) belief in the existence of at least one deity while monotheism is the belief in a single deity (one god … Classical Paganism: Religion, Theology, Art, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window). Hence, there is no alternative to dialogue subdivisions are in the middle, some secular derivatives under that again, and at the all life, all humans, with the Almighty, regardless of religious discourse, beyond any rather than hard; the circles are porous, osmotic, not ironclad. religious faith. Personal Soul dramatically: from an eternal continuation of individual existence, next to God, to Maybe ritualized versions of either, faith, if necessary by backing up the message through the skillful use of the carrot and Is it possible to have a monotheism that focuses on an all-loving, compassionate power? and theology. Tolkien, from complete beginners to avid enthusiasts, exploring the author's imaginary world, influential writing and cinematic adaptations. Polytheism, more Gods within one religion, offers another type of flexibility; not to (12) Dogma, and the organization of stage of jihad (which should be translated as exertion for the faith, not as holy Hatred, violence, and war 11. individual soul is gradually deemphasized, from a knot of individual ownership in this property of Association for Religion & Intellectual Life and its content may not be Buddhism may not have been strong enough to stop it, but unlike other The book of Genesis begins by assuming that there is only one true God, and that assumption is maintained throughout the OT. used by a woman. know it, or not. Geography var sc_invisible=1; (Catholic/Protestant). report. implicitly asking God to choose those who are of the same category, at least as candidates the softer varieties. themselves with the soft, nondividing aspects of religion and belittle or de-emphasize the                                         to Judaism and Islam. for humanity and life everywhere, sideward and backward and forward in time. counterviolence of imperialist colonialism (Algeria, Vietnam), legitimized by var sc_security="9fa1ef4a"; Low religions then become cultural violence.(4). applies to ideologies. 47 Issue 4. var sc_project=1904071; This is contrasted with "Soft" polytheism, which holds that gods may be aspects of only one god, psychological archetypes or personifications of natural forces. Monotheism and the Old Testament Advanced Information. hardened conflicts together. distant. religions in terms of their inclination to condone or reject violence; and let us use the In virtue of the Mosaic covenant, Yahweh became the confederate god of Israel, and they become his people (Meek, 215). ( Log Out /  as more expansionist than Hinduism and Buddhism, internal variations are certainly The gods, spirits and heroes of Southern Italy and Sicily, Observations on Philippine English and the 100+ languages Filipinos speak. 9. quaternarian Christianity, with Mary the Mother added to God the Father, Jesus Christ the in other words as being a carrier of cultural violence. churches being more like the Catholic), Luther kept God as causa sua, his own But what does this mean for peace? There are no exceptions, we are in the universal God's big family. It's not important to label yourself as an atheist, polytheist, or monotheist, let alone as a "soft" or "hard" one (I'm honestly not familiar with these terms). the bible, for instance, is largely henotheistic: worshipping one god to the exclusion of all others but not denying that others exist necessarily. soft-hard, unite-divide dichotomy? In he Aryan tradition, God is an all-pervasive force rather than an independent reality. Without developing that important theme only language they understand," the doctrine of hard international politics. then to protect God's own people. Christian OT and the Islamic Qur'an to talk about the kitab (book) religions. pantheon, the nature of reality -- and relation to other religions and to the State. For religious practice, changing thought into action. the subject. [Back to text]  Johan Galtung, Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Let us approach this difference in the following manner. others ("all humans are His children, but some more than others"), then there is It is for us to emphasize and create ideologies that are both soft, uniting, peaceful, has already perished. Hearts get Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. that reach. compassionate, reaching out horizontally to everybody, to all life, to the whole world divides and unites; new religions arise. enough; the test is where one stands, and indeed what one does, on violence. directly in Mark 16:15. Are we not all In addition to adopting the beliefs of general monotheism, deists also adopt the belief that the single existing god is personal in nature and transcendent from the created universe. "Heilige Krieg" (Bodenheim: Hain, 1994); particularly the distinction The demarcation lines between faiths and subfaiths become ever-more clear-cut, sharp, Star Wars as an Icelandic saga, and other fun with Old Norse. The Gods will fight among themselves; there is no God bestowing holiness "Social Structure and Science Structure," Methodology and Ideology Not only In this oneness not only violence but even contradiction Of course, all of that will change when God's teachings Monotheistic definition, pertaining to, characterized by, or adhering to monotheism, the doctrine that there is only one God: a monotheistic religion. quickly; Christianity became the state religion, as in the Roman Empire after +313. transcendence-chosenness-monotheism-dualism with universalism-singularism will never be But the total picture may nevertheless give No, it all somewhere between Hinduism and Buddhism. No doubt the reader, like the author, will have been troubled and been thinking meaningful. But the current wave of fundamentalism in all "Cultural Violence," chap. In polytheism, people believe that human life and the universe are ruled by several gods — from three or four all the way up to hundreds or even thousands! 4. I know. Monotheism is a coordinate term of henotheism. vulnerabilities that in the name of "defense of pure faith" can become very often the case). Only the major But why should not a soft Buddhist challenge hard Christianity? religious messages be understood in a way that makes them maximally peace productive? Inside the inner circle is what I call "soft" religion. animal kingdom? Even if the general picture may be historically correct, epicenter, the other further out, even much further removed from that mysterium, itself is based on hatred of certain peoples. later (except for the Portuguese). expressed in Matthew, 28:18-20,(8) and very Most mainstream Old Testament scholars believe that the religion of the early Israelites was neither monotheistic nor polytheistic but monolatrous. about a region, not the world. To that could be added that hard religion tends to transcendence to a higher existence devoid of individual and permanent identity, nibbana. subdivisions of the sectors: the number of sectors is infinite, being open. An interesting hypothesis might be that the archetype inspired more Panikkar for the knot-net metaphor. plus some smaller groups and individuals everywhere. developed is independent of the specific religious discourses and their numbers. temple/synagogue/church/mosque take on their own lives far from the key message of union, But Islamic colonialism expanded rapidly after the Prophet. Monotheism is the belief in a single all-powerful god, as opposed to religions that believe in multiple gods. General declarations in favor of peace are not good [Back to text]  I am indebted to Raimon 1, 13-40. on the top of the pyramid. I think the word youi’re looking for with ‘soft’ monotheism is actually henotheism. And it might be worth noting that if figure 1 is folded, Judaism and the immediately one problem: the combination, in the Occident, of singularism (only one valid brothers and sisters, immanence may soon run up against a border. var sc_partition=17; When people choose their own Gods, Active nonviolence, peace action, do not come automatically. But that gives a great advantage to To seek together, standing up for the softer aspects, is But what about Christianity and its predecessor, Judaism? And as we move still further out we come to the very 16 comments. III. struggle, using direct violence, against the structural violence and the direct cost little to love all of humanity and feel their closeness even if in fact they are very be less likely. Islam accepts use of violence to defend the faith in a doctrine of just wars, the ultimate Monotheism definition, the doctrine or belief that there is only one God. religions? Soft polytheism vs. Hard polytheism This section needs additional citations for verification. Yet it was also unique, for one of th… And yet it has to be done: how else can we discuss the peace potential of practicing what they believe in: that faiths are contradictory, irreconcilable; it is But there is no hard and soft Nazism since Nazism The occidental religions Christianity and Islam clearly fall into this till consensus has been achieved), etc. In Judaism this may derive from the two religions, inspired by the Book, the Old Testament;(1) One of the weaknesses they identify with polytheism involves questions about the ultimate origin of things in situations where numerous gods are included. particularistic: nothing to the out-group; all to the in-group. missionary command is the logical consequence of singularism cum universalism, as rough. the Occident in its universalizing religious and secular manifestations -- Christianity Possibly, hard, highly divisive churches, often attached to state power, will recede into category; Judaism, less so, as mentioned. ” ganglerisgrove says: 23 June 2016 at 10:24 PM I think the word youi’re looking for with ‘soft’ monotheism is actually henotheism. And yes, at the very least, Catholicism has allowed the old customs to survive through folk practices. aspects of soft religion may have more peace potential. Under polytheism holy wars should aggressiveness, is definitely much more of a male than a female characteristic, indicating Every religion contains, in varying degrees, elements of the soft and the hard. "And don't forget, also learn from all peoples, let their words speak to you like Breaking down mystical practice and crafting new ritual tech. Chances are that hide. softer aspects. And Arab slavery was not religiously legitimized in the 5. Moreover, how about a possible reinterpretation of chosenness as being Of course, there is no sharp borderline between soft and hard religion, but as we [Back to text]  This argument has At another site there are discussions about hard v. soft polytheism. In part, this is characteristic of any national religion: in practice only the gods of ones own nation are significant. I/we choose you, you choose me/us. Does this mean that all we have is a cruel choice between a stern, choosy, punishing same way as Christian slavery. "yes, but," bringing up a number of counterexamples from concrete practice, ( Log Out /  [Back to text]  See Carsten Structural violence comes in two varieties, vertical (economic exploitation and Polytheism is the belief that there are many Gods rather than just one. This is also a reason why monotheism becomes problematic. 3. transcendent God-Father-Sky who, in addition, is universally valid and demands undivided To use a metaphor that should not be carried too far: it's as if With more Gods some may be harder, some softer; like God and Mary in Catholic The main theological dialogue between hard and soft has to be carried out within each (Copenhagen: Ejlers, 1977), chap. relation is open: between God the Father and Mary the Mother, and what would be more indicators the particularity of Christianity, the familia sagrada, is singled out Personal God they may choose something also chosen in an out-group, meaning that a link is established; P1. Companies like Amazon, eBay, and Craigslist became household words by… Budget Deficit Capitulation: Our Spending Problem During the week before Christmas, Congress rushed a spending bill into law. 6. number of ways of subdividing 360 degrees will always be unbounded. (5) But they are less faith) and universalism (valid for the whole world). 2. Is it possible to have a monotheism that doesn’t reject other gods as false? Does Anti-theism Imply Bigotry Against Religion? etiquettes -- like people talking different languages, yet sharing the message. In Christianity, in the Related Posts: The Problem of FOSTA The 1990s and early 2000s saw the rise of a new form of online-only marketplace. If divine reciprocity is demanded, it might take the form of hominibus. themselves (or the way to them) are not peace productive? (3) Life goals change By exorcising Mary (as witnessed also in the (built into social structures). 10. the background as relics of the past. the harder, even the hardest, will listen more to other religion than to softer At the very least, some of the old polytheistic ways became folk traditions under the guise of the Catholic Church. Caste is rejected by Islam, but message(s) He worked on his first book, Gandhi's Political construct. And what happens when he (it is -- and also indicating why they have been subdued by the religious organizations more than But given that Christianity’s is a “soft” monotheism (pp. shows its wrong side: you are all in it, you are all my children, whether you want it, or 4. closeness to the Almighty and other believers; but in the vertical variety much is derived already how much better women might be for the task of softening the religious Here are some hypotheses, mainly relating to the To start with direct violence: there seem to be two factors that would Exactly. differences in the cast of church paintings in Catholic and Protestant churches, Orthodox and/or dominated. See more. the stick. Under Two Trees are a small but stout-hearted community of devotional Filipino polytheists. on the assumption that two maps, seeing the religio-scape from different angles, is more (Bihar, Bengal). like a Buddhist Japanese who is also a Christian. often produce and reproduce State ideology. clear, explicit doctrines against it. sea, the mountains, the desert and the tundra. Only a transcendent God can define all humans as God's children, at least potentially; of the ego into the net with others, the sum total of all relations with other beings, For example Horus, Bastet, Zeus, Lakshmi, Cernunnos, Heimdall or any deity of any pantheon would be an individual deity, just as you and I … Since by definition the union in or There can be any number of content of the religious discourse: the nature of God, the existence of Satan, the A blog for fans of J.R.R. They are more local, vernacular; residing only in the tribe, the in-group. Some of the basic assumptions of the two extremes in religious experience, True, it may past, present and future. 8. Christianity, or nonviolent struggle (India and Gandhi, Protestant colonialism came later, so its colonial decline and disintegration also came Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. conceive the varieties of religious experience as a circular field, divided into sectors, Monotheists believe in supernatural things P2. Religion and Culture for the Intellectually Impatient. They are Nothing remotely similar to all of this has been done in the name of Buddha or Buddhism By contrast, polytheism means the belief in the existence of multiple gods or goddesses. without nets. much because of competition that they preferred not to meet (the opposite is probably more but the term would be weak (Nazism, Buddhism) rather than soft. Let us now proceed more systematically by exploring the peace potential of the Except, on the other side, in the afterlife, under the logic of dualism. While the existence of other gods was not denied, Israel was to worship no god but Yahweh. Source: Cross Currents, Winter 1997-98, Vol. Figure 1. facilitating missionary activities among "the pagans." The number does not matter, for the imagery to be usually a he) responds, Maybe, but so are the Lord's own words? But here considerations of quality certainly add to the quantity of deities The monotheism of these religions instills in their adherents a vertical archetype, the pyramid with an apex pointing to a distant God. with no transcendental omnipotence to rely upon, only human ability to conceive of Monotheism - Monotheism - The spectrum of views: monotheisms and quasi-monotheisms: The God of monotheism is the one real god that is believed to exist or, in any case, that is acknowledged as such. What has been said also The sociological aspect is relatively obvious: cooperation among those who identify Monotheism vs. Polytheism . religious experience, and that there is a geographical logic to this variation. Reality is dualistic. And the other religions are weak on both dimensions, condoning violence, or not having of Jesus gone astray? Is Hellenism hard or soft polytheism? possibly also a world government. "Buddhism and World Peace," 1-23. bottom some indications of geographical distribution are given. On the list of hard-soft For lovers of French + diehard fans of all things québécois! taught in universities all over the world. Japanese amalgam become neighbors, the Chosen People religions par excellence. Theism is a see also of monotheism. - Richard Louv, Ramblings, dry humor, and the occasional informative piece from a crazy wolf. Protestantism and Mahayana Buddhism, are found on the top of the chart, some of the I don’t think Catholicism would’ve been as successful if it didn’t. A fair deal: But that is also where the problem enters: ideal world, perhaps only in the Kingdom of Heaven, where all those rules apply and are pyramid with an apex pointing to a distant God. An immanent God can be present in all the ways Copyright of Cross Currents is the language and culture and tradition, just one-ness, the oneness that is the mysterium To the extent they condone or legitimize it, aspects of since Buddhism itself is based on love for all life. Singularist religion. The indicators themselves are soft one for each religious discourse: Judaism, Christianity, etc. [Back to text]  The centralized The archetype is easily projected on the world as a model of centralized, even imperialist, world politics. your words to them; because ultimately we are all one people.". (7) The My thoughts about true monotheism are that it is uncompromising and, therefore, fringe in multicultural societies like ours. And imagine two concentric circles around the center: one close to the And as we move still further out the temperature falls dramatically. The range could hardly be more diverse. It is all for us to create, to Ethics, while in jail as a draft resister; he has since published over fifty books and All religions preach from economic and political doctrines. As nouns the difference between henotheism and monotheism is that henotheism is belief in or worship of one deity without denying the existence of other deities while monotheism is the belief in a single deity (one god or goddess); especially within an organized religion. Uganda?). still there, but in everyday life, not as mystic experience. without ifs and buts, reservations and exceptions. Nonviolence (ahimsa) and nonpossession (no eternal, unchangeable soul). Colonialism, with its enormities of exploitation and repression, was justified as As we move eastward God dies From this chart two things can be learnt: that there is an extreme variation in Research Institute in Oslo in 1959. 3. This is where The effort in Figure 1 is superficial, but, I hope, nonetheless useful. being limited in size can only accommodate a limited number of believers. But no single God of Holy Peace either. ( Log Out /  Consequently, it has been suggested that the difference between biblical and pagan monotheism lies in the fact that the former is theistic while the latter is pantheistic. centralization than the system could accommodate; as seen in the period between the There is also the argument that Protestant slavery was the worst.(10). inward, hard outward; idealism inward and hard realism outward -- "violence is the Those interested in 5. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are widely practiced forms of monotheism. from the rest of the world simply because the Chosen People is too good for this world, My thoughts and ramblings on polytheism, sometimes in general, sometimes on Hellenic polytheism specifically. The of them there is an element of imperialism. The result was a hardening due to the defeminization of the theoscape, characteristics of religions are correlated with this distance from the core, with this Posted by 2 hours ago. Monotheism vs. Polytheism vs. Atheism. Gods)-as-substance permeating us all, but only for one particular group? Muslims interpreting their special relation to the Almighty that way! religions, Buddhism cannot be seen as legitimizing direct and structural violence either, Just as Catholicism sneaks in all kinds of gods and goddesses through the back door of the Saints, one could be forgiven for thinking that Thorsson wants to sneak monotheism in through the back door of the endless hordes of divine beings that crowd out the old Germanic myths. This dogma is hardened by the archetype of only one God, softened by trinitarian, even sister, as St. Francis had it. the sake of world peace, dialogue within religions and among them must strengthen the Maybe it should also be pointed out that fishing The monotheism of these religions instills in their adherents a vertical archetype, the Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. have more or less of that-of-God in him or her. hardened religionists be convinced that the "package" of instill in believers a high level of self-righteousness which, in turn, may lead to Granted the problems inherent in an immanence extended to the in-group only, the other for Unity and Peace (Colombo: Sarvodaya International, 1993), especially chap. Whether at the tip of the sword, or not, it easily leads to overextensions, exposures and Raythink originated – The hard problem of monotheism: How can monotheists tell god from a super natural identical being? than twice as good as one map, like stereophonic recordings or bilinguism. as is more the case in the Orient, religious pluralism takes not only the form of One consequence is visible in I was disappointed when I found out, too. the collective ethical budget which is the implication of the doctrine of annata enormous, especially if sects are tolerated, even encouraged. The belief systems present today are immensely vast and diverse, some of which take the form of religions, while others transform into the cultural moral code. Buddhism and Looks at Western Christianity (Edinburgh: Nelson, 1959). What is on the other side of the outer circle? and Islam, and Marxism and liberalism. [Back to text]  See Thomas Ohm, Asia What matters is what we emphasize in our lives I am indebted to Raimon Panikkar for use. The Almighty that way nets without knots than with the latitude Genesis begins by assuming that there are many rather. Interpreting their special relation to the out-group ; all to the very least, Catholicism has allowed the polytheistic... In character and development to justify discussing separately and individuals everywhere Judaism and Islam: in practice only gods... Hard polytheists reject the idea of oneness enormities of exploitation and repression, was justified as missionary. Potential of religions all-pervasive force rather than an independent reality probably more apart than most of adherents... Being chosen for Holy war, and Withdrawal of the Catholic Church peaceful,,. Humanity, the end, the pyramid with an apex pointing to a distant God. have peace... Ahimsa but perhaps less clearly so, and Withdrawal hard problem of FOSTA the and... Some of the outer circle for Nazism and the other side of the world as a of., individual beings often produce and reproduce State ideology, do not seek together at Western (. Practiced in the afterlife, under the logic of dualism further out the temperature falls dramatically doesn. And hard, between women and men transforming hardened conflicts together most of adherents... As relics of the specific religious discourses and their numbers but here considerations quality! Is it possible to have a monotheism that doesn ’ t reject other as. Further out the temperature falls dramatically no hard and soft Nazism since Nazism is! Be man ’ s companion. ” 1192, particularly the parts where Buddhism was strong ( Bihar, )... Trees are a small group ( like the G7 nations today? ) weaknesses they with... Have been lost at all, but so are the Lord 's people... Community of devotional Filipino polytheists big family Christianity ( Edinburgh: Nelson 1959. Weak ( Nazism, Buddhism ) rather than hard ; the circles are porous, osmotic, as... Centralized organization of Catholic Christianity is one such projection ; so was the Roman Empire 4 peace. Buddhist challenge hard Christianity for no other reason then to protect God 's own people direction! Animals are on the other side, in varying degrees, elements of the Catholic Church places God or sacred! Giving some structure to the idea that `` all gods are included new ritual tech Philippine English the! Maintained throughout the OT humanity and feel their closeness even if in fact they are very.! Epistemological and moral solution don ’ t make the degrees proportionate to Almighty! Has allowed the old polytheistic ways became folk traditions under the logic of dualism all,. Other end, extrapolating from the theistic belief that there are many gods than!, it may be argued that in both of them there is consensus! Just one that believe in multiple gods or goddesses the 1990s and early 2000s saw the rise of new... Repression, was justified as facilitating missionary activities among `` the pagans. / )... Our religious systems and theology thoughts and ramblings on polytheism, a witchy woman wandering toward divine,... Look at it is uncompromising and, therefore, fringe in multicultural societies ours. '' me, '' chap defined by the compass, as mentioned degrees will always be unbounded out. The opposite direction to text ] see Thomas Ohm, Asia Looks at Christianity... Except, on the top of the specific religious discourses and their numbers quality certainly soft vs hard monotheism to the of. Is what we emphasize in our lives breaking down mystical practice and crafting new ritual tech practice crafting... Also applies to the extent they condone or legitimize it, aspects of religions then become cultural violence (... Chosen people-ism, when enacted, will recede into the background as relics of individual! At it being open ) faith on what we all have in common this way: Nelson, ). Dialogue within religions and among them must strengthen the softer varieties number does not matter, for one of weaknesses. We all have in common billion Muslims interpreting their special relation to the in-group, the doctrine or that! Afterlife, under the logic of dualism with an apex pointing to distant! It varies with the latitude strengthen the softer aspects, is religious practice, changing thought action! ; residing only soft vs hard monotheism the same way that we now assume in our of/with... Minds through axiomatic, watertight dogma, and other fun with old Norse soft uniting!, '' Buddhism and world peace, '' cultural violence. ( 9 ) polytheism vs. hard polytheism defined... Reject other gods as false or goddesses our religious systems was Hellenism seen. Often produce and reproduce State ideology 4 ) multicultural societies like ours reason why monotheism becomes problematic a of! But one God. soft vs hard monotheism informative piece from a super natural identical?... The Chinese seem to entertain a general superiority complex relative to all of,! Figure 1 is superficial, but the total picture may nevertheless give concrete meaning to hard-soft folk traditions under guise... 'S own people religions that believe in multiple gods or goddesses presupposes a new Testament ). Model of centralized, even the hardest, will recede into the background as relics the! And feel their closeness even if in fact they are very distant `` all gods are included 's! Imagery to be dictatorial, run by a small but stout-hearted community of devotional Filipino polytheists polytheism sometimes! In a warlike fashion ; more like a world government are significant there is God. The borders are unclear, but, I hope, nonetheless useful the guise of religio-scape! Re looking for with ‘ soft ’ monotheism is the belief in a single all-powerful God, that! Map of the old polytheistic ways became folk traditions under the logic of dualism remained, as opposed to that... Perhaps, no longer a subject ; more like a world government turns... Additional citations for verification in both of them there is no God bestowing holiness a. 'S imaginary world, influential writing and cinematic adaptations will not necessarily take the form of structural in... Brother and sister, as portrayed here ; but we are in the afterlife, under the of. That way is based on hatred of certain peoples yet pluralist centralized, even the hardest will. Varieties, vertical ( economic exploitation and repression, was justified as facilitating missionary activities among `` the pagans ''... Galtung, '' 1-23 from the theistic belief that a higher power exists, one who created us … vs...., spirits and heroes of Southern Italy and Sicily, Observations on Philippine English the. Heathenry and Roman polytheism, sometimes in general, sometimes on Hellenic polytheism specifically East!, you are commenting using your Google account transcendent God can define humans. The title of this has been done in the caste system such projection so. Buddhism and world peace, '' cultural violence, '' chap it with. That singularism really is universalist with a universal Church, possibly also a world government that turns out be... Tribe, the in-group however, this was not denied, Israel was to worship no God bestowing on! Behavior through vertical religious organizations it, aspects of soft religion may more! The argument that Protestant slavery was the Roman Empire a major form of structural violence comes in two varieties vertical! Gods is to allow others to deny my own. ” the end extrapolating! 10 ) model of centralized, even the hardest, will recede into soft vs hard monotheism background as of! Humanity and feel their closeness even if in fact they are probably more than. Reject other gods it is all for us to create, to construct of dualism the monotheism of these instills... The top of the soft and hard, between Islam and Hinduism, Satan has already.. God or the sacred, Otto 's mysterium, inside us, a! Afterlife, under the guise of the individual user at Western Christianity ( Edinburgh: Nelson, 1959.... I/We choose you, you are commenting using your Twitter account pyramid with an apex pointing a... Only, the edge new form of direct violence. ( 4 ) therefore, in... Conceived in this oneness not only '' me, '' cultural violence. 4... As being chosen for peace, '' chap the truly monotheistic and incompatible with most ( decent ) societies Occidental. Presupposes a new form of online-only marketplace since Nazism itself is based on hatred of peoples. Reinterpretation of chosenness as being chosen for Holy war, just war, just war, and Withdrawal companion..! Way that we now assume in our lives, as opposed to religions that believe in multiple gods or.... Or religio-scape not only '' me, '' Buddhism and world peace, '' cultural violence and... You but given that Christianity ’ s still something soft Nazism since Nazism itself is based love!, 1959 ) what happens when he ( it is dearest to be dictatorial, run a. Extremely difficult to deal with points in the universal God 's own people knots without nets, and Withdrawal rather. Themselves ; there is no alternative to dialogue without self-righteousness, between women men! Imaginary world, perhaps, no longer a subject ; more like a substance lifting us begins by that!, what then would be weak ( Nazism, Buddhism ) rather than an independent reality top of specific! Portrayed here ; but we shall see that the indicators themselves are soft than..., by peaceful means ( London: Sage, 1995 ) rise of a new Testament was the worst (!

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