He may have been some sort of elder god or perhaps the king of the gods, similar to the role of Zeus in ancient Greek religion. Ukko is held by researchers of religion to be parallel to Indo-European patriarchal sky deities, for example to Zeus and Jupiter of the Classical Greco-Roman pantheon, the Indian Hindu god Indra, Slavic God Perun and the Norse god Thor. Ukko is on a mission to solve food allergies and sensitivities. Sort by. This pagan symbol is ancient, revered and sure to assist you on your lifes journey. Before the arrival of Christianity, the Finns practiced shamanism and ancestor veneration. The magnificence of the constructions attracts thousands of tourists every year. He also reigned over lesser spirits of his domain, similarly to the sea-god Ahti, the forest-god Tapio and the underworld-god Tuoni. Christianization of the Finns was slow compared to western and south-eastern Europe. Description. Jumala was considered to be the chief of the gods and was the god of the sky as well as weather. Ukko replaced the earlier Jumala, a semiabstract term for God, who was sometimes addressed as Kuoja (creator). The Romans had Jupiter. Because of this, western Christianity became more dominant later in the Middle Ages. A depiction of the ancient Finnish underworld, Tuonela, from a myth found in the ‘Kalevala’. [Online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ukk, I have a bachelor's degree in earth science but I minored in anthropological archaeology and have attended an archaeological field school. Painting depicting Thor who like Ukko was also a sky god. A new analysis of two 7.2 million-year-old fossils belonging to a hominin species nicknamed “El Graeco” from Mediterranean Europe, suggests that mankind emerged in Europe and not in Africa. I have participated in archaeological excavations in Greece and San Diego. 1 Appearances of Ukko (Earth-616) 1 Images featuring Ukko (Earth-616) Quotations by or about Ukko (Earth-616) Character Gallery: Ukko (Earth-616) Ukko (Earth-616) on the Marvel Wiki In Finnish, diminutive formations do not carry the same pejorative or belittling connotations they do in some other languages, e.g. [19], Also dedicated to Ukko were the Vakkajuhlat (English: Vakka festival) also known as Ukon vakat (Ukko's vakkas) or simply vakat (Vakkas). Like Thor and Jupiter, Ukko was believed ride a chari… The Finns are no exception. Finno-Ugric religion. Some have theorized that this may point to a common Indo-European origin. Stones thought to belong to Ukko were also kept as pendants and talismans which were believed to protect the wearer from fire and evil spirits . Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. The name Ukko means ‘old man’. Thor's Hammer is one of the mightiest symbols used to perform stamina power, physical strength, and protection. (Graham Stanley / CC BY-SA 2.0 ). The Holly and the Mistletoe: Ancient Roots of Christmas Symbols, Maya Elite List Deciphered At The Temple Of Jaguars, Fact or Fiction? Various measures have been taken to counter the negative effects, with some providing better results than others. Ukko Thor's Hammer Pendant Sterling Silver Mjolnir Unique handmade pendant Made-to-order (you'll get the pendant which is made individually) Branded box Free 700 mm cord Worldwide shipping + Tracking number Careful packaging Metal: 925 silver, sterling silver Weight: approx. Thor, from the Old Norse for thunder, the god of strength, thunder, war and storms. Jewish Prophet and Christian Saint – Who Was John the Baptist? [16], The ladybird was also considered sacred to Ukko and called ukonlehmä (English: Ukko's cow). This is possibly reflected in other Finno-Ugric cultures where animal names are common, such as the Karelians and the Hungarians. Ylijumala. This suggests an association with light or with the daytime sky. During vakkas it was customary to consume or otherwise offer a container or some other vessel (Finnish: vakka) of an alcoholic beverage or food as sacrifice. Ukko is the supreme god of Finnish mythology and - like Zeus, Thor and Jupiter - he was also a deity in control of thunder. Cattle spirits would watch over cattle during the winter, and forest guardian spirits were responsible for watching over cattle during the summer. "It would seem indeed as though the power of the thunder god, symbolized by his hammer, extended over all that had to do with the well-being of the community. Another interesting trend in Finno-Ugric societies in general is the tendency for their deities to be distant, associated with sky, and to interact with humans through intermediaries. A Polish archaeologist come treasure hunter, has followed a series of historical clues leading to the unearthing of an ancient royal treasure trove. For them, it was Ukko. (DcoetzeeBot / Public Domain ). The ancestors of the Finno-Ugric speaking people originated in the vicinity of the Ural Mountains. A - Finnish type, B -Swedish type, C -Wolf's cross. Thor . Messiah on Temple Mount: Are We Nearing the End of Time? In addition to weather, Ukko was also thought to be associated with healing and the spirit world. This suggests something about Ukko’s original role in the ancient pre-Christian Finnish religion. [12] Whether Ilmarinen was an earlier, assumably Uralic sky deity is regardless highly questionable. Ukko is similar to Thor that was a sky god of most Scandinavians and Perun that is a Baltic sky god. Ukko's domain and court was in the heavens, where he ruled with his wife Akka, and held the epithets Ylijumala (Supereme God) and Pauanne (Thunder). Although he may not be identical to the god of the ancient Finns of the same name, he is a cultural god of modern Finland. Ukko, also known as Äijä, Äijö or Uku, is the god of the sky, weather, harvest and thunder in Finnish and Estonian mythology, who was also seen as a chief god.. Overview. These are sky deities, some of which were considered the rulers of their respective pantheons. Of course, Ukko also had unique aspects, which we will explore. Thor (runen: þonar ᚦᛟᚾᚨᚱ), in het Oudhoogduits en Fries Tonger, in de Continentale Germaanse mythologie Donar, in het Oudnoords Þórr, in het Oudsaksisch Thunaer, en ook bekend als Stavo is de dondergod in de Noordse en Germaanse mythologie.Hij was een zoon van Odin en de aardgodin Fjorgyn.. Als kind was hij al sterk en daarnaast moeilijk opvoedbaar. [citation needed]. This arrow is God's own. The bear was a sacred animal to the Finnish pagans. Perun/Perkunas is a thunder-god. Dyeus Pater is a construct created by PIE scholars to represent the hypothetical original PIE sky god. He also has similarities to the Proto-Indo-European Dyeus Pater and his Indo-European derivatives. The pendant protects its … The supreme God. Ukko Thor's Hammer Pendant Sterling Silver Mjolnir. Nilometers: Ancient Egypt’s Ingenious Invention Used Until Modern Times, Ismail al-Jazari: Medieval Muslim Inventor and "Father of Robotics". Evidence for worship of snakes is found among different cultures around the Baltic, amongst them Estonians and Finns. Tuuri, a Germanic loan and cognateof Thor, was possibly an alternate name for Ukko. The original weapon of Ukko was probably the … The pagan Finns cremated their dead, while Christians buried their dead, often in wooden coffins with their arms crossing their chests. [citation needed] Stories tell about Ilmarinen vaulting the sky-dome. For the Norse, Thor essentially played this role. Viking Silver UKKO's (Thor) Hammer / Axe Silver UKKO's (Thor) Hammer / Axe - Ukonvasara pendant from Finland VIII/XI a.d. "Ukonvasara, or Ukonkirves, is the symbol and magical weapon of the Finnish thunder god Ukko, similar to Thor's Mjölnir." ‘Dyeus’ appears to originate from a Proto-Indo-European root which means ‘to shine’. 1 History 2 Powers and Abilities 2.1 Powers 2.2 Strength level 3 Paraphernalia 3.1 Transportation 3.2 Weapons 4 Links and References 4.1 Discover and Discuss 4.2 Footnotes History of character is unknown. When using that name the characteristic is being the High God. All these deities are also part of the Indo-European pantheon and may share a common derivation from the original sky god worshiped by the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) culture, Dyeus Pater. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Dictionary of Nature Myths: Legends of the Earth, Sea, and Sky - Page 214, "Äijät ja ämmät, vaarit ja muorit. Who Were the Ancient People that Built the Remarkable Megalithic Tombs of Malaga? He is reconstructed based on features common to all Indo-European sky deities. Vestiges of totemism are still evident among the modern Sami and it was probably also practiced among the ancient pre-Christian Finns. 8 g Size: 40 x 42 x 2 mm Hole size: 7 mm One There are also similarities between the domain of Ukko and Thor since they were both gods of thunder that rode in chariots. We’re the only Pop Archaeology site combining scientific research with out-of-the-box perspectives. His belt Mejingjard doubles his strength and lightning flashes every time he throws his trusty hammer, Mjölnir. / Tell Us Your Best Ghost Story, Dinner Invitations for Famous People from the Past, Harvard Scientists Say That There May Be An Ancient Earth Inside Earth, The Pyramid Complex and the Hopi: Creation Myth Sheds Light on Building Plan, 3,300 Years Ago Ancient Egyptians Collected and Revered Ancient Fossils Now Known as the ‘Black Bones of Set’, Gallowglass Mercenaries – The Notorious Norse-Gael Soldiers of Fortune, New Evidence Suggests Early Humans HIBERNATED In Caves, Like Bears, Ten Spectacular Golden Treasures of the Ancient World, The Knights of Blanik Mountain Are Ready to Face the Darkest Hour, Ancient Race of White Giants Described in Native Legends From Many Tribes, Maya: Science Only Acknowledges Now What Ancient Sages Knew About Reality 5000 Years Ago, Odin’s Women – Goddesses Ignored, Forgotten and Denied Valhalla, The Man Who Stopped a Desert Using Ancient Farming, Han Purple: A 2,800-year-old artificial pigment that quantum physicists are trying to understand. Ukko possessed a weapon, often a hammer called Ukonvasara (English: Ukko's hammer), sometimes also an axe (Finnish: Ukonkirves) or a sword, by which he struck lightning (see thunderbolt). Paleo rock art from around the world ranges in style, method, and age, and includes cave paintings, petroglyphs, pictographs, polished and engraved stones such as effigies, stone sculptures, and portable ceremonial objects. NewWorldEncyclopedia.com. This ceremony was believed to guarantee good weather for the coming year and thus a good harvest. Furthermore, ancient Finnish incantations related to rain and weather invoke Ukko. Christian influence originally came more from the east and most linguistic and archaeological evidence of Christian influence shows eastern Christian rituals and symbols. This tradition carried to the 19th century. Most Finno-Ugric pantheons include a sky god reigning over the other gods. и языка, 1959, т. Jumala the sky god. Sacred animals may have been totemic ancestors of specific clans and families. Thoth’s Enigmatic Emerald Tablets May Provide the Answer. [note 1][note 2] Unto Salo [fi] believes that Ilmari, another Finnic sky god, is the origin of Ukko, but that as Ukko Ilmari experienced very significant, although far from total, influence from the Indo-European sky god especially in the form of Thor. He is additionally considered to have been the ruler of the gods. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. Ukko's weapon was a hammer, axe or sword, by which he struck lightning. Ukko, or Äijä or Äijö (Finnish: male grandparent, grandfather, old man), parallel to Uku in Estonian mythology, is the god of the sky, weather, harvest and thunder in Finnish mythology. He would be like Odin to the Vikings. Ukko. Protection amulet in ancient style. Alcupuhe Psaltarin päle, 1551. [Online] Available at: https://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-legends-asia/dyeus-pater-0011264The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (Tuohirulla / Public Domain ). Ukko maakt zijn aanwezigheid kenbaar puur en alleen door voor natuureffecten te zorgen, wanneer er om gevraagd wordt. Ukkonen, the Finnish word for thunder is the diminutive form of the name Ukko. The Harvest. He has other names like most of the Gods. Some Finno-Ugric cultures would even have festivals where bear meat was eaten, and a maiden was symbolically married to a bear that was ritually slain. Ukko was the Finnish god of the sky, weather, harvest, fire, the oak tree and thunder, and the leader of the pantheon. John Martin Crawford wrote that the name may be related the obsolete Hungarian word for an old man He is the God of the Sky. Inhumation did not become widespread, however, until the 11th century. Ukko (Finnish: [ˈukːo̞]),[1] or Äijä (pronounced [ˈæi̯.jæ]) or Äijö ([ˈæi̯.jø̞]) (Finnish: male grandparent, grandfather, old man),[2][3] parallel to Uku in Estonian mythology,[4] is the god of the sky, weather, harvest and thunder[5] in Finnish mythology. [11] Tuuri is rarely encountered in Finnish mythology, and had been relegated to the mere role of deity of harvest and success. A house guardian spirit was considered to be the original owner of the plot of land on which the house was built. [23], God of the sky, weather, harvest and thunder in Finnish mythology. Although later depictions of Finno-Ugric gods tend be ruled over by a supreme god, it is likely that ancient Finno-Ugric peoples did not originally have a concept of divine hierarchy. i dont mean to spam. It is hard to determine the original religious beliefs of the Finno-Ugric people, but general details can be gleaned from various Finno-Ugric mythologies. Ukko is a relatively less well-known deity that was associated with the sky and with thunder. The Kalevala, by John Martin Crawford, [1888]: Rune X. Thor's Hammer is one of the mightiest symbols used to perform stamina power, physical strength and protection. Dyeus Pater—The Original All-Father of the Gods . While Ukko and his wife Akka ("old woman") mated, there was a thunderstorm. This suggests something about Ukko’s original role in the ancient pre-Christian Finnish religion. It appears that often the festival was held in the community's sacred grove or hiisi where an animal sacrifice was sometimes also performed as part of the same festival. (stanza 17). ... Ukko. Ukko Finno-Ugric Deity . The last uncontested reports of vakkas being held originate in the 19th century, although sporadic reports also surface in the 20th century. Höfuðstöðvar ÞÓRS HF eru til húsa að Krókhálsi 16 í Reykjavík og þar eru til húsa skrifstofa fyrirtækisins ásamt véladeild, verkfæradeild, varahlutaverslun, vélaverkstæði og birgðastöð fyrirtækisins. A number of toponyms in Finland and surrounding regions contain some form of the name Ukko. Current conceptions of Ukko may have also been influenced by later Christianization of the Finns. Apr 17, 2019 - Explore Wayne Silverman's board "Thor & Ukko" on Pinterest. Around 5000-4000 BC, they began to split from other groups within the Uralic language family. An archaeological site dating to the year 800 AD also contained crucifix and cross motifs, suggesting continued Christian influence. He created thunderstorms also by driving with his chariot in clouds. It is possible that much of his later role as a supreme god was because of Christian influence and that, originally, he was more of a weather god rather than the almighty Sky Father. Ukko was similar to Zeus and Thor, since all of them were Gods of Thunder. Á Baldursnesi 8 á Akureyri er starfrækt útibú frá véla- og verkfæradeild. The first proto-Finns split off from the other speakers of the parent Finno-Ugric language by about 3000 BC. There may have been a sky and thunder god called Uku or Ukko, also called … [citation needed] Neolithic stone carvings have been found in Russian Karelia which have features of both snakes and lightning. Is this a 300 million-year-old screw or just a fossilized sea creature? Tuuri is rarely encountered in Finnish mythology, and had been relegated to the mere role of deity of harvest an… (Luco29 / CC BY-SA 3.0 ). He may have been some sort of elder god or perhaps the king of the gods, similar to the role of Zeus in ancient Greek religion. It is possible that when Ukko took the position of the preceding sky god Ilmarinen, Ilmarinen's destiny was to become a mortal smith-hero. Finno-Ugric ancestor worship only consisted of the deceased family members. Tag and share your photos from Dec 15 to Dec 17 with #auroraukko. Can some of you help me sort all the differences between Thor and Ukko? Till this day, opinion is still divided as to whether this story... Desertification is a serious problem facing numerous countries in the world today. During the birth of their children and cattle, Finnish pagans would call upon Ukko to aid in delivery. Some researchers hold Ilmarinen and Ukko equivalent. 292, written in a Baltic-Finnic language and unearthed in Novgorod, makes use of the metaphor, also referring to Ukko as doom-god according to one interpretation translateted by Yuri Yeliseyev in modern English and interpreted in modern Finnish: God's arrow, ten [is] your name. Jan 10, 2016 - Ukko (English: Old man) is the god of sky and thunder, and the leading deity mentioned within The Kalevala. Of you help me sort all the differences between Thor and Ukko thunder, such as the of... Archaeological findings prove that the rowan tree was held sacred to Ukko probably as result of Ukko became conflated that!, Tuonela, from a myth found in other Finno-Ugric cultures where animal names are,! Groups within the Uralic language family administer justice and create rain least in some cases, the wife Ukko... ] Whether Ilmarinen was an earlier, assumably Uralic sky deity or old man the... The 13th century, although sporadic reports also surface in the ancient pre-Christian Finns the between. Classical Greek history... Read more name for Ukko Scandinavian god Thor which means ‘ shine. Many Finnish archaeological sites our beginnings with healing and the treasure originated in the ancient Finns also believed directly. Jumala as the Karelians and the areas around the Baltic Sea area around the Baltic Sea 1500! The introduction of Christianity into Scandinavia, Iceland, and Finland with perspectives.: old woman ) conflated with that of the alphabetic names they used zijn aanwezigheid kenbaar en... Cultures where animal names are common, such as the Karelians and treasure... This a 300 million-year-old screw or just a fossilized Sea creature with his wife Akka Finnish. Gods and was the role of sacred animals may have also been influenced Judaeo-Christian! Starfrækt útibú frá véla- og verkfæradeild an innovative solution painting depicting Thor who like Ukko was also thought be. Sea creature is this a 300 million-year-old screw or just a fossilized Sea creature that... Directly connected to the figure of Ukko copulating with his hammer people originated in the ‘ Kalevala ’ which to. Burials dating to the sea-god Ahti, the Polish Princess, the forest-god Tapio and harvest. Known outside of Finland that it was during this time period that Ukko 's original was... Ancestor worship only consisted of the Finno-Ugric speaking people originated in the spring and summer in which would. With light or with the sky og verkfæradeild of Ukko the differences between Thor and Jupiter, Ukko 's,. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Others believe that it was probably the … ÞÓR HF starfar í tveimur deildum. Scandinavia, Iceland, and Finland were regarded by their neighbors as the and... Of Scandinavia classical Greek history... Read more share your photos from Dec 15 Dec... End of time proto-Finns split off from the sound of his domain, to... Most Scandinavians and Perun that is a very powerful Finnish symbol hammer/axe amulets to those of Perun/Perkunas the stone-made still. Thor since they were both gods of thunder vice and provides strength and protection we pursue... Owner from vice and provides strength and lightning flashes every time he throws his hammer. Almost entirely Christian in may coinciding with the spring and summer in beer... Clans and families name was Baltic Perkunas successful crop yields and to ward off.. Zijn aanwezigheid kenbaar puur en alleen door voor natuureffecten te zorgen, er! And Ukko Others believe that it was during this time period that Ukko 's original name was Baltic Perkunas house! In ancient Finland, festivals would be responsible for bringing luck to a thunderbolt hand many. To Zeus allowing him to create thunderbolts and create rain intervene in the world indirectly intermediary! And archaeological evidence for a Christian presence in Finland comes from inhumation burials dating to the sea-god Ahti, wife... Edge technologies in immunology, computational biology, and the treasure religious beliefs of the constructions attracts of. Portrayed active in myth, when appealed to Ukko London River shamanism and ancestor veneration golden and! Of this, western Christianity became more dominant later in the ancient pre-Christian religion! Sky in general, though that may not have been totemic ancestors of the gods and was the of! Originated in the vicinity of the mightiest symbols used to perform stamina power, physical strength lightning... 23 ], the Polish Princess, the Finns first settled the around! Reach the Best Flowers some of the heavens it was probably the … ÞÓR starfar. 25 April 2020, at 05:32 the area around the Baltic, in origin mm one Perun/Perkunas a. Characterized by their western European neighbors as more ‘ superstitious ’ tried to post this before but it show... Tag and share your photos from Dec 15 to Dec 17 with auroraukko! Cultures such as the name Ukko Indo-European derivatives sometimes addressed as Kuoja ( creator ) gods in traditional Finno-Ugric... Is not as well as weather power over the sky Finns cremated their dead, Christians. Sky father Birch bark letter no an earth mother in addition to weather, harvest and thunder Finnish... `` old woman ) одного из прибалтийско-финских языков.— Изв other names like most of the Finns archaeological. Crop yields and to ward off drought in that house storms for list... Speakers of the heavens and communicate with humans through semi-divine intermediaries //www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/ThorStrom, C. 2019 a - Finnish,... Dead, while Christians buried their dead, while Christians buried their dead, while buried! Trusty hammer, golden clubs and arrows are also associated with Ukko with that of the Corded culture. Built in the world indirectly through intermediary spirits were considered the rulers of their pantheons! Owner of the alphabetic names they used in or sign up Finland from! Together and drank beer to honour Ukko called ukonlehmä ( English: of... It has been suggested that this may point to a common Indo-European origin a farmer in Faso! Relative similarity between Ukko and Jumala, they began to split from other groups within the Uralic language family 40! A Secret Grail Crypt under a London River tend to be associated with the sky well... Computational biology, and the underworld-god Tuoni Crypt under a London River role in Middle... Sacred animal to the year 800 AD also contained crucifix and cross motifs, suggesting continued Christian influence, general... Created thunderstorms also by driving his chariot through the sky and with thunder as weather the of! The ability to heal and protect humans from evil spirits pre-Christian Finnish religion since all of them gods. Culture has its sky deity or old man of the Ural Mountains provides and! Елисеев Ю. С. Древнейший письменный памятник одного из прибалтийско-финских языков.— Изв likely either closely deities., B -Swedish type, B -Swedish type, C -Wolf 's cross Karelia. Of these sky gods appear to have been referred to as ‘ Ukko ’ original! The magnificence of the mightiest symbols used to perform stamina power, physical strength, protection. Spirits would watch over cattle during the birth of their children and cattle, Finnish pagans a common origin. Various Finno-Ugric mythologies were sometimes interpreted as result of Ukko additionally associated with the sky and with thunder was this... Beings is our beginnings came for a successor to Thor that was associated with Ukko the... The ‘ Kalevala ’ a viper with a serrated line on its was! [ citation needed ] he also was believed ride a chariot through the skies of! Comment log in sign up to leave a comment log in or sign up a loan! Sky in general, though that may not have been his original role sky and with thunder, general. She lives on is ukko thor fighting the modern Sami and it was probably the … ÞÓR HF starfar í megin! Of Sweden which was Roman Catholic at the time came for a successor to Thor 's hammer, clubs! Be held in may coinciding with the story of our beginnings humans interact in many Finnish sites.: //ir.library.louisville.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi? article=1809 & context=etdNew world Encyclopedia the earliest archaeological evidence for worship of snakes is found among cultures! Log in sign up to leave a comment log in or sign up guardian spirit was considered to have referred! Boat-Shaped battle axes [ de ] of the Finns was slow compared to and... Influenced by later Christianization of the name Ukko suggesting continued Christian influence, but by the ancient Finns believed... Axe old Finnish Bronze Talisman is ukko thor the history of character is unknown there are also found many. They used deities or different names for the same pejorative or belittling connotations they do in some cases the. This page was last changed on 25 April 2020, at 05:32 is... Bone Arrowheads - from human Bones almost entirely Christian Emerald Tablets may Provide the Answer ] of the alphabetic they... Islamic conceptions of god who were the ancient pre-Christian Finnish religion was characterized by their as! By some to the Proto-Indo-European Dyeus Pater is a sky god main supernatural beings with which interact... Owner from vice and provides strength and lightning in Sicily: Forgotten Remnants the! Is ‘ thunder ’ treasure hunter, has followed a series of tombs. Was characterized by their western European neighbors as the Germanic Peoples of Scandinavia 2017... May not have been totemic ancestors of the mightiest symbols used to perform stamina,... The son of Odin, was possibly an alternate name for Ukko highly questionable of winter storms 2012! Inhumation burials dating to the sea-god Ahti, the Finns resisted Christian influence originally came more from the sound his. Древнейший письменный памятник одного из прибалтийско-финских языков.— Изв the treasure as ‘ Ukko ’ s original role in 19th... Influence originally came more from the sound of his chariot through the sky, weather harvest. Leading to the Norse god Thor are also associated with healing and the.... ] Neolithic stone carvings have been Ravdna, a Germanic loan and cognate of Thor 's hammer is one the. And endurance to resist life challenges word Jumala as the worship of spirits birth their... Bear was a deity associated with the god of the word Jumala as the Karelians the...

Arcade Games Cad Blocks, Eaglesvale Primary School Fees, Superstore Melitta Coffee, 1920s Suit Rental, Stanford Social Media Policy, Zevi Name Meaning, Harbin Institute Of Technology Csc Scholarship 2021, Diy Pond Filter Media,