(ii)  is restrained in the seat by the seat’s seatbelt; or. accurate QNH has the same meaning as in section 10.06. additional fuel means the supplementary amount of fuel required to allow an aircraft that suffers engine failure, or loss of pressurisation at the most critical point along the route, whichever results in the greater subsequent fuel consumption, to: (a)   proceed to an alternate aerodrome (or, for a rotorcraft, a suitable rotorcraft landing site); and. (1)     The pilot in command of an aeroplane during approach and landing must ensure that, from the time the aeroplane descends below the minimum height for the flight in accordance with regulation 91.265, 91.267, 91.277 or 91.305 (as applicable), the aeroplane has the performance to clear all obstacles by a safe margin. §91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements. 77, 21.07             VFR aircraft in Class E or G airspace — prescribed reports. Note   Regulation 91.630 requires certain flights to make regular reports or broadcasts to an ATS. (1)     This section applies to a flight of an aircraft if: (a)   the aircraft is a seaplane or an amphibian; and. 44, 11.08             CASA approval required for flight in the NAT-HLA.. 45, 11.09             Performance-based communication and surveillance requirements. Whether a clearance is issued, or when a clearance may be issued, could be affected by the flight not being conducted with an operative transponder. As Benjamin Franklin once said, ‘If you fail to plan, you are planning to fail.’ As technology becomes more sophisticated, it becomes even more critical to plan your flights carefully. (1)     This section applies in relation to equipment that is required under this Chapter to be fitted to, or carried on, an aircraft for a flight. Table 26.12 (7) – Requirements for equipment – rotorcraft IFR flight. For subregulation 91.235 (1), this Chapter prescribes requirements relating to flight preparation and alternate aerodromes (the flight preparation (alternate aerodrome) requirements). 54, 14.05             Use of GNSS as substitute or alternative to ground-based  navigation aids. (1)     An aircraft operating by night must be fitted with or carry, as applicable, the following lighting equipment: (a)   cockpit lighting that meets the requirements mentioned in subsection (3); (b)   cabin lighting that enables each occupant of the aircraft to see and use: (i)  the occupant’s seatbelt and oxygen facilities, if any; and. 2     If a provision of the civil aviation legislation permits an aircraft to operate for a flight with an inoperative item subject to conditions or limitations and the conditions or limitations in the provision are less restrictive than the conditions or limitations in the MMEL for the aircraft — the conditions or limitations specified in the MEL for the item must be at least as restrictive as the conditions or limitations specified in the provision. 72, Division 20.2         Restraint of infants and children. Note 1   In the event of an engine failure, the Category A procedure allows for a rejected take-off within take-off distance available. AS/NZS has the meaning given by Part 1 of the CASR Dictionary. airspace not within an Australian FIR — the airspace: — within an area, predominantly over an ocean. (3)     For an aircraft first issued with a certificate of airworthiness before 8 December 2016, an equipment configuration is acceptable if: (c)   the GNSS system meets the performance requirements mentioned in subsection 26.71 (2). At the commencement of this instrument, the AIP document containing these geographical areas was the Planning Chart Australia. , followed by an identifying letter and number, is a shorthand reference to both the TSO and the ETSO, each of which has the same identifying letter and number. (2)     During the VFR climb or descent, the pilot in command must: (b)   comply with IFR reporting and communication requirements; and, (c)   maintain separation from other aircraft; and. Table 26.10 (2) – Requirements for equipment – rotorcraft VFR flight by day. 78, CHAPTER 22        PERFORMANCE-BASED NAVIGATION (PBN) 79, CHAPTER 23        INTERCEPTION OF AIRCRAFT.. 80, 23.02             Interception of aircraft 80, CHAPTER 24        TAKE-OFF PERFORMANCE.. 81, 24.02             Take-off performance for aeroplanes. ​Aviation Information Data Exchange (AIDX) is the global XML messaging standard for ​exchanging flight data between airlines, airports and third parties. and sound signals — seaplanes and amphibians, 26.56             Life jackets — carriage requirements, 26.57             Stowage of life jackets, 26.58             Wearing life jackets — aircraft generally, 26.59             Wearing life jackets – rotorcraft – special provision, 26.60             Life rafts —carriage requirements, 26.62             Overwater survival equipment, 26.64             Remote area survival equipment, Division 26.16       Transponders and surveillance equipment, 26.68             Carriage of transponders and surveillance equipment, 26.69             Operation of transponders — general requirements, 26.70             Mode S transponders — specific requirements, 26.71             Alternate GNSS position source for ADS-B OUT — requirements, 26.72             Alternate ADS-B OUT equipment configuration — requirements, 26.73             Aircraft flown with inoperative transponder, 27.01             Experimental aircraft — placards, 27.02             Light sport aircraft — placards. 9.05     Responsible persons for receipt of a flight note. Note 2   A pilot in command should not expect any form of priority handling because of a “minimum fuel” declaration. is an ATC authorisation for an IFR flight in Class E airspace to operate in VMC at VFR cruising levels. (2)     For the definition of special VFR, the VFR in subsection (3) are prescribed. Item 7 pertains to degradation of aircraft performance as a result of failure or degradation of navigation, communications, altimetry (including RVSM capability), flight control or other systems. permits an aircraft to operate for a flight with an inoperative item subject to conditions or limitations and the conditions or limitations in the provision are less restrictive than the conditions or limitations in the MMEL for the aircraft — the conditions or limitations specified in the MEL for the item must be at least as restrictive as the conditions or limitations specified in the provision. The equipment must have an alternate power supply in addition to its primary power supply unless: (a)   the equipment has a source of power independent of the power operating other gyroscopic instruments; or. (b)   be able to supply oxygen, or a mixture of oxygen and another suitable gas, continuously for at least 15 minutes. (3)     The pilot in command must notify ATC if any deviation from track exceeds any of the following tolerances: (a)   for PBN operations — 1 x the RNP value for the route or route segment being flown; (b)   for LOC-based operations — full-scale deflection of the course deviation indicator; (c)   for VOR-based operations — half-scale deflection of the course deviation indicator; (d)   for NDB-based operations — + or -5° from the specified bearing; (e)   for DME-based operations — + or -2 NM from the required arc; (f)    for operations based on visual navigation — 1 NM from the cleared track. means the horizontal protection level of the GNSS position of an aircraft as an output of the GNSS receiver or system. (b)   worn by, or immediately accessible to, the pilot for the duration of the flight. 26.46  Portable protective breathing equipment. (c)   a combination of paragraphs (a) and (b). A prescribed navigation specification may not be used without CASA approval under regulation 91.045 for paragraph 91.660 (1) (b). Note   For QNH areas, see the Planning Chart Australia, as contained in the AIP. relevant aircraft means any Australian-registered aircraft that is not an experimental or light sport aircraft. GNSS means the global navigation satellite system. to the flight of an aircraft over a remote area. Relevant ICAO documents for this MOS may be accessed by navigating from the following link: A reference to an ICAO document, including an ICAO Annex, which only occurs in a Note to a provision, does not have the effect that the document is taken to be applied, adopted or incorporated for this MOS, unless a contrary intention appears. For subregulation 91.230 (1), this Chapter prescribes requirements relating to flight preparation and weather assessments (the, (3)     An authorised weather forecast used to satisfy the requirement under subparagraph (1) (a) (i) must cover the whole period of the flight for which it is to be, For subregulation 91.235 (1), this Chapter prescribes requirements relating to flight preparation and alternate aerodromes (the, for an aerodrome outside Australian territory is the IAP that the pilot in command of an aircraft determines has. Note   The pilot in command of an aircraft for a flight otherwise contravenes subregulation 91.205 (1) if, during the flight, the aircraft is flying in formation, and the pilot has not a prearranged with each pilot in command of the other aircraft making up the formation to fly as part of the formation. (2)     For subsection (1), in determining which conductible IAP has the second lowest minimum altitude, the pilot in command must comply with the following constraints: (a)   the conductible IAPs that may be considered in determining the IAP with the lowest, and hence the second lowest, minimum altitudes must not both require use of the same radio navigation aid; Note   Radio navigation aid is a defined term in the CASR Dictionary. BECMG, in relation to a weather forecast, has the same meaning as in ICAO Document 8896. area navigation, means a method of navigation which permits aircraft operations on any desired flight path within: (a)   the coverage of ground or space-based navigation aids; or, (b)   the limits of the capability of self-contained navigation aids; or. Division 2.1         Definition of special VFR. CAR means the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988. (ii)  for any other low-visibility IAPs — if the MID RVR zone is not providing valid reports; (c)   other than for an SA CAT I instrument approach operation, an END RVR report is required: (ii)  for any other low-visibility IAPs — if the MID RVR is not providing valid reports; Note   MID or END RVR reports are not required for SA CAT I instrument approach operations. alternate aerodrome has the same meaning as in ICAO Annex 2. 100, 26.22             Anti-collision lights. 10.02  Matters to be checked before take-off. § 91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements. COVID-19 Resources for Airlines & Air Travel Professionals, Keep passengers/crew safe & fuel costs down, 2021 Manuals for transporting air cargo now available. (2)     Despite subsection (1), VFR flights do not require clearance to enter Class E airspace. (b)   6. alternate ADS-B OUT equipment configuration, approved ADS-B OUT equipment configuration. single-pilot operation has the meaning given by Part 1 of the CASR Dictionary. (b)   where the weather conditions within the BECMG element of the forecast represent an improvement in all of the weather elements within the preceding elements of the forecast — the change indication is to be applied from the end of the forecast BECMG period. AWIS, or automated weather information service, means an aerodrome weather information service, provide by an aerodrome operator: (a)   that provides actual weather conditions at the aerodrome, via telephone or broadcast; and. (3)     When a relevant aircraft begins a flight with at least 2 pilots, as required by or under the civil aviation legislation or the AFM, it must be fitted with: (a)   3 headsets and 3 microphones that are not of a hand-held type; or. For example, the joint Australian and New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 1754:2004. (b)   worn by, or immediately accessible to, the pilot for the duration of the flight. recorder means a combination recorder, an FDR or a CVR. (b)   an area of water is the only reasonably available forced-landing area for the relevant period. (4)     For subsections (2) and (3), the RVR zone requirements are as follows: (a)   a TDZ RVR report is always required, unless: (i)  the IAP is a CAT III instrument approach operation conducted with the use of an FO landing system and an FO or FP rollout system; and. 10.04  Checking pressure altitude systems — IFR flight. 115, 26.61             Stowage of life rafts. (1)     In this MOS, unless a contrary intention appears, a reference to a particular AS/NZS standard is a reference to the particular joint Australian and New Zealand Standard, as in force or existing from time to time. means the data from an approved provider loaded onto an aircraft navigation system. (ii)  equal to or more than the alternate minima but with a forecast of at least a 30% probability of fog, mist, dust or any other phenomenon restricting visibility below the alternate minima; (c)   for wind — a headwind, crosswind or downwind component more than the maximum for the aircraft; (d)   a thunderstorm or associated severe turbulence, or a forecast of at least a 30% probability of such an event. 125, 26.72             Alternate ADS-B OUT equipment configuration — requirements. (a)   for landing an aeroplane at a certified aerodrome — the distance declared by the aerodrome operator in the AIP as available and suitable for the ground run of the aeroplane when it lands at the aerodrome; or. Regulation 91.400 places certain requirements on aircraft without an operative radio at certain non-controlled aerodromes. (ii)  1a standby direct reading magnetic compass. An aircraft operating by night must be fitted with at least 1 landing light. (i)  the inoperative recorder has not been inoperative for more than 21 days; (d)   for an aircraft that is fitted with 1 combination recorder — the inoperative recorder has not have been inoperative for more than 3. 25.04  Landing performance for rotorcraft — Category A rotorcraft within a populous area. The equipment must have an alternate power supply in addition to its primary power supply: (a)   unless the equipment has a source of power independent of the source of turn and slip information; or. Note   This definition is based on the ICAO, FAA and EASA definitions of the term Category A in relation to rotorcraft. At the commencement of this instrument, ICAO Document 8896 refers to FEW as 1‑2 oktas of cloud. must display accurate time in hours, minutes and seconds. SBAS means satellite-based augmentation system. (4)     Portable PBE units must not prevent, or be likely to prevent, a crew member from effectively using any crew intercommunications or radiocommunications equipment fitted to or carried on the aircraft. (b)   is usable fuel remaining in the fuel tanks on completion of the final landing at the relevant aerodrome. AC60-6B.pdf (PDF, 118 KB) This Division applies to a rotorcraft, subject to Division 26.5. 11.17  Control areas – IFR flights – VFR climb/descent and VFR-on-top. Note 2   ATS routes is a defined term: see the CASR Dictionary. (2) Level B maintenance check flights are maintenance check flights other than Level A. SPO.SPEC.MCF.105 Flight programme for Level A maintenance check flights (2)     For subsection (1), if an approved GNSS unit is provided with the automatic barometric aiding options specified in any of the following (the. (3)     If the forecast area QNH is used, the pilot in command must increase the minima for the instrument approach by 50 ft. 14.04  GNSS arrivals, and DME or GNSS arrivals. CASR Dictionary means the Dictionary under regulation 1.004 of CASR. 26.44  Oxygen mask usage requirements — pressurised aircraft above FL 250. quick-donning mask means an oxygen mask that: (a)   is for a flight crew member’s personal use; and. In this Division, an ELT is a transmitter that meets the following requirements (, (a)   if the transmitter is activated — the transmitter must transmit, (b)   if the transmitter is fitted to, or carried on, an Australian aircraft — the transmitter must be registered with the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (. Division 2.2         Definition of specified aircraft performance category, 2.02     Specified aircraft performance category. (c)   communicating on the aeronautical emergency frequency 121.5 MHz. 26.20  Equipment to measure and record cosmic radiation. Division 8.2         Destination alternate aerodromes, 8.04     Destination alternate aerodromes — weather. (4)     For subparagraph (1) (a) (ii), for an IFR flight to a planned destination aerodrome with an IAP that a pilot is able to conduct, the authorised weather forecasts for the planned destination aerodrome and any planned alternate aerodromes must be an aerodrome forecast or an ICAO landing forecast. and sound signals — seaplanes and amphibians. (e)   notify ATC when returning to the last assigned level. (3)     Emergency equipment that is required under this Chapter to be fitted to, or carried on, an aircraft for a flight must be easily accessible for immediate use in the event of an emergency. transponders and surveillance equipment: see subsection 1.07 (7). At the commencement of this instrument, ICAO Document 8168 defined. (d)   determine the amount of usable fuel expected to be remaining when the aircraft lands at the destination aerodrome. infant has the meaning given by Part 1 of the CASR Dictionary. If the MMEL for an aircraft type does not specify a rectification interval for an inoperative item, the rectification interval for the item in an MEL for an aircraft of the type must clearly reflect the significance of the item for the safe operation of the aircraft. (7)     For subsection (6), if a forecast contains multiple change indicators of INTER or TEMPO, the fuel for holding that is required under paragraph (6) (b) must be that for the most limiting requirement. 8.07     Destination alternate aerodromes — restrictions. means an approved Mode A/C transponder or an approved Mode S transponder. ETSO is short for European Technical Standard Order: see the CASR Dictionary. 75, 21.05             Controlled aerodromes and controlled airspace — prescribed reports. (b)   the ETA at the planned destination aerodrome: (i)  is within the first 3 hours of the TAF3 validity; and. (ii)  fitted with a conversion placard or device. (b)   if no transponder code is so assigned — to the relevant standard code in Table 26.69 (7). Note 1   For continuation of a flight with an inoperative radiocommunication system, see sections 11.10 and 11.18. CHAPTER 28     REQUIREMENTS FOR MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LISTS, 28.01  Contents of minimum equipment list. The Guidance Material & Best Practices for Airline Operational Cost Management (AOCM) assists airlines in developing cost reduction program, A handbook for corporate social responsibility reporting per the Global Reporting Initiatives standards. ATS will, however, advise the flight crew member of any additional expected delays, and coordinate when transferring control of the aircraft to ensure other ATS units are aware of the aircraft’s fuel state. 110, 26.49             ELT — basic technical requirements. (d)   the database is not used for updating of a navigation system. (1)     Landing minima obtained from an instrument approach chart must be selected in accordance with: (a)   the specified aircraft performance category; and. (2)     If a VFR flight is 1 of the following: (a)   a flight conducting an air transport operation; (c)   a flight in a designated remote area; (d)   a flight at night proceeding beyond 120 NM from the aerodrome of departure; then the pilot in command must do 1 of the following in accordance with procedures published in authorised aeronautical information: (g)   leave a flight note with a responsible person. (3)     Subsection (2) does not apply to the following: (a)   an item of equipment used to display the time; (b)   an independent portable light, for example, a flashlight or torch; (d)   a sea anchor and other equipment for mooring; (e)   survival equipment, including signalling equipment. 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