[68] Gayatri as speech sings to everything and protects them, asserts the text.[68][69]. [171] The one who knows his soul, continues to study the Vedas and concentrates on his soul, who is harmless towards all living beings, who thus lives all his life, reaches the Brahma-world and does not return, states Chandogya Upanishad in its closing chapter.[171]. This concept is summed up in the line, “Who are you?” and the response, “I am you” (1.2). [25] The deities thereafter revered the Udgitha as speech, but the demons afflicted it and ever since one speaks both truth and untruth, because speech has been struck with good and evil. [157] Those who do not discover that Self within themselves are unfree, states the text, those who do discover that Self-knowledge gain the ultimate freedom in all the worlds. Uddalaka had a son called Shvetaketu. [133][135][141], The soul and the body are like salt and water, states the Upanishad in volume 6.13. Kena Upanishad 14 5. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. [25][26] The deities inside man – the body organs and senses of man are great, but they all revere the life-principle because it is the essence and the lord of all of them. Lower knowledge has its place in one’s life but should not be confused with one’s existential purpose of self-actualization and union with the Divine. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. When he was twelve, his father said to him, “It is time for you to find a spiritual teacher. The Chandogya Upanishad was probably composed in a more western than eastern location in the Indian subcontinent, possibly somewhere in the western region of the Kuru-Panchala country. This is endless. Beyond chronological concerns, the verse has provided a foundation for Vedanta school's emphasis on ethics, education, simple living, social responsibility, and the ultimate goal of life as moksha through Brahman-knowledge. [144] Greater than Food, states section 7.10 of the Upanishad, is Āpah (आप, water) because without Water one cannot grow Food, famines strike and living creatures perish. It is part of the Chandogya Brahmana, which has ten Prapathakas (Parts). It begins with the creation of the universe by the god Prajapati who is later identified as an avatar of Brahman. The Katha emphasizes the importance of living in the present without worrying about past or future (what the philosopher Ram Dass phrased as “Be Here Now”), examination and explanation of the Atman and its relation to the soul/mind of an individual (in the parable of the chariot), the concept of moksha, vitality of the Vedas and, especially, self-actualization as illustrated in the tale of Nachiketa and Yama, God of Death. This page was last edited on 7 August 2020, at 06:12. Katha Upanishad 20 8. The purpose of life, then, was to attend to the responsibilities one had been sent to earth to fulfill by recognizing one’s duty (dharma) and performing it with right action (karma) as one worked toward self-actualization and liberation (moksha) which freed one from the cycle of rebirth and death (samsara). [134][141], The seventh chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad opens as a conversation between Sanatkumara and Narada. The work continues on the theme of unity and proper ritual until its conclusion in praise of the realization that duality is an illusion and everyone is a part of God and of each other. The Chandogya Upanishad in volume 23 of chapter 2 provides one of the earliest expositions on the broad, complex meaning of Vedic concept dharma. He who Thinks understands Understanding, therefore one must desire to understand Thought (Mati, मति), He who knows home,[114] becomes home for others. [171] This knowledge of Self is immortal, and the one who knows his own self joins the glory of the Brahman-knowers, the glory of Rajas (kings) and the glory of the people. The Atman as the Higher Self, the immortality of the soul, the illusion of duality, and the essential unity of all reality is discussed and explained through the analogy of salt in water: As a lump of salt thrown in water dissolves and cannot be taken out again, though wherever we taste the water it is salty, even so, the separate self dissolves in the sea of pure consciousness, infinite and immortal. But the Brahmasamstha – one who is firmly grounded in Brahman – alone achieves immortality. [133][134], Man's journey to self-knowledge and self-realization, states volume 6.14 of Chandogya Upanishad, is like a man who is taken from his home in Gandharas, with his eyes covered, into a forest full of life-threatening dangers and delicious fruits, but no human beings. [18] The entire doctrine is also found in other ancient Indian texts such as the Satapatha Brahmana's section 10.6.1. [74], The universe, states the Chandogya Upanishad in section 3.15, is a treasure-chest and the refuge for man. M Ram Murty (2012), Indian Philosophy, An introduction, Broadview Press, Hardin McClelland (1921), Religion and Philosophy in Ancient India, The Open Court, Vol. The fourth chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad opens with the story of king Janasruti and "the man with the cart" named Raikva. Joel Brereton (1995), Eastern Canons: Approaches to the Asian Classics (Editors: William Theodore De Bary, Irene Bloom), Columbia University Press, S Radhakrishnan (1914), The Vedanta philosophy and the Doctrine of Maya, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. Index S. No. 4, pages 431-451. [48][50], The 22nd volume of the second chapter discusses the structure of vowels (svara), consonants (sparsa) and sibilants (ushman).[49]. A Mahavakya hither food, bring hither food, we are driven &... 7 12 5 section 10.6.1 have different licensing terms 108 ] that is in. 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