https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-128, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-128. In this paper we provide a worked example of a grounded theory project. Qualitative research is increasingly popular in health and medicine. Participant Observation (fieldwork) and/or focus groups. BMJ. The patient question route was also modified by the analysis of the dentists' and practice staff data. Featherstone JDB: The caries balance: The basis for caries management by risk assessment. They contained the interviewer's impressions about the participants' experiences, and the interviewer's reactions; they were also used to systematically question some of our pre-existing ideas in relation to what had been said in the interview. 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2002.tb00317.x. Each time we reminded the committee that our study design was intended to evolve with ongoing modifications. 2004, 31: 749-757. Grounded theory studies are characterised by theoretical sampling, but this requires some data to be collected and analysed. 2004, 4 (1): 107-18. After a few interviews, the interviewer/researcher also began making and recording comparisons among these memos. Cookies policy. Thomas and James, for example, distinguish the ideas of generalization, over-generalization, and theory, noting that some scientific theories explain a broad range of phenomena succinctly, which grounded theory does not. We developed a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and analysed the variation in this process in different dental practices. We submitted Ethics Modification applications for changes in our question routes, and had no difficulty with approval. Charmaz's method, like Glaser's method , captures actions or processes by using gerunds as codes (verbs ending in 'ing'); Charmaz also emphasises coding quickly, and keeping the codes as similar to the data as possible. Edited by: Morse JM, Stern PN, Corbin J, Bowers B, Charmaz K, Clarke AE. J Clin Periodontol. 2009, 9: 355-381. CAS Using this constant comparative method (see Table 1), we produced a theoretical code: "making sense of evidence and constructing knowledge". Dentist and practice staff interviews were done in one week. More commonly in the literature writers speak of adopting, implementing or translating evidence-based preventive protocols into practice. In theoretical coding, the researcher refines the final categories in their theory and relates them to one another. Once he realizes that he has collected all the data, and no new data exists within the sample, he moves on to a new sample. This was expressed in both diagrams and memos, was built around a core set of focused codes, and illustrated relationships between them. Need help with a homework or test question? 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1986.tb01069.x. Pitts NB: Monitoring of caries progression in permanent and primary posterior approximal enamel by bitewing radiography: A review. Important core focused codes were identified, including practical/financial, historical and philosophical dimensions of the process. With Chegg Study, you can get step-by-step solutions to your questions from an expert in the field. 2006, 16: 547-559. This grounded theory study builds on a previous Australian Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) called the Monitor Dental Practice Program (MPP) . Our aim is to provide a model for practice, to connect medical researchers with a useful methodology, and to increase the quality of 'grounded theory' research published in the medical literature. Scott JW: Relating categories in grounded theory analysis: using a conditional relationship guide and reflective coding matrix. In 2014, Guillermo Antonio Arriaz Martínez applied the theory based on the treatment of the data collected in his graduate degree work. Hence the failure of all those attempts to provide clear, mechanistic rules for GTM: there is no 'GTM for dummies'. Successful adaptation was contingent upon whether (1) the dentist-in-charge brought the whole dental team together - including other dentists - and got everyone interested and actively participating during preventive activities; (2) whether the physical environment of the practice was re-organised around preventive activities, (3) whether the dental team was able to devise new and efficient routines to accommodate preventive activities, and (4) whether the fee schedule was amended to cover the delivery of preventive services, which hitherto was considered as "unproductive time". Qual Res. Evans RW, Pakdaman A, Dennison P, Howe E: The Caries Management System: an evidence-based preventive strategy for dental practitioners. In the intervention arm, dentists were provided with a set of evidence-based preventive protocols to apply ; control practices provided usual care. Cite this article. Grounded theory is deemed as an effective means of gathering in-depth information from the sample, which can be used in the development of theoretical constructs to explain a particular behavior, event, perspective etc. 10.1111/j.1600-0528.1983.tb01883.x. 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2008.00076.x. Accordingly, we sought to learn from participants how the MPP process worked and how they made sense of it. (2006), Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, Wiley. Figure 1 illustrates the steps taken during the project that will be described below from points A to F. Study design. Aust Dent J. In our application, we explained grounded theory procedures, in particular the fact that they evolve. Avoid preconceived theories and focus on the data only. 10.1177/1468794107078517. Qual Res. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. Dentists' construction of the "unreliable" patient during interviews also prompted us to theoretically sample for "unreliable" and "reliable" patients in the following round of patients' interviews. The use of the constant comparative method enabled the analysis to produce not just a description but a model, in which more abstract concepts were related and a social process was explained. An exception is Charmaz's own description of her study of chronic illness ; we applied this same variant in our study. In focused coding, the researcher pursues a selected set of central codes throughout the entire dataset and the study. In 2007, Bryant and Charmaz argued: 'Use of GTM, at least as much as any other research method, only develops with experience. Social processes are discovered in the data. Sbaraini, A., Carter, S.M., Evans, R.W. 1986, 14: 265-270. The initial 18 participants (one dentist, five dental assistants and 12 patients) from Dental Practice 1 were interviewed in places convenient to them such as the dental practice, community centres or the participant's home. With a team of extremely dedicated and quality lecturers, example of grounded theory study will not only be a place to share knowledge but also to help students get inspired to explore and discover many creative ideas from themselves. This requires decisions about which initial codes are most prevalent or important, and which contribute most to the analysis. The researcher wrote memos throughout this week. CLICK HERE! This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. We indicated that we would make future applications to modify our protocols. Agresti A. Wheelan, C. (2014). Types three and four are Kathy Charmaz's 'Constructivist Grounded Theory'  and Adele Clarke's postmodern Situational Analysis : Charmaz and Clarke were both students of Anselm Strauss. Oral Health Prev Dent. Article Important practical, philosophical and historical elements as well as barriers and facilitators were present during a complex adaptation process. Initial coding identifies many different processes. The MPP tested whether dentists could increase their use of preventive techniques. 2008, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 3, Charmaz K: Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis. 2005, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. By comparing codes against codes and data against data, we distinguished the category of "seeking out evidence" from other focused codes, such as "gathering and comparing peers' evidence to reach a conclusion", and we understood the relationships between them. W. W. Norton & Company. We describe our sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. Phone interviews had similar length and depth compared to the face to face interviews, but allowed for a greater range of participation. $43.65. Google Scholar. Free shipping . Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. BMJ. We also changed our interview questions based on the analysis we had already done (see Additional file 2). Descriptive Statistics: Charts, Graphs and Plots. Privacy We analysed the interview transcripts as soon as possible after each round of interviews in each dental practice sampled as shown on Figure 1. AS, SMC, RWE, and AB have been involved in drafting the manuscript and revising it critically for important intellectual content. We have looked rigorously for events or accounts not explained by the emerging theory so as to develop it further to explain all of the data. Qualitative Health Research Journal: website accessed on 10 June 2011, [http://qhr.sagepub.com/], Qualitative Health Research conference of The International Institute for Qualitative Methodology: website accessed on 10 June 2011, [http://www.iiqm.ualberta.ca/en/Conferences/QualitativeHealthResearch.aspx], The Global Congress for Qualitative Health Research: website accessed on 10 June 2011, [http://www.gcqhr.com/], Mays N, Pope C: Qualitative research: observational methods in health care settings. The Application of Grounded Theory: An Example from Nursing Workforce Research . We thank Emeritus Professor Miles Little for his time and wise comments during the project. Next, the transcripts are coded line by line and labelled into concepts. CAS Sturges JE, Hanrahan KJ: Comparing telephone and face-to-face qualitative interviewing: a research note. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. Article All interviews were digitally recorded, professionally transcribed in detail and the transcripts checked against the recordings. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. The decision to include phone interviews due to participants' preference worked very well in this study. Participants transitioned from their initial state - selling restorative care - through an intermediary stage - learning by doing and educating patients about the importance of preventive care - and finally to a stage where they were offering patients more than just restorative care. Grounded theory methodology assisted us to develop a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and to analyse variation in this process in different dental practices. Having the opportunity to contact participants after interviews to clarify concepts and to interview some participants more than once contributed to the refinement of theoretical concepts, thus forming part of theoretical sampling. Google Scholar, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Tri-Council Policy Statemen: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans . Then, in Dental Practice 2 we learned more about the barriers dentists and practice staff encountered during the process of implementing the MPP protocols. Grounded Theory explained | Definition | What are the Different Methods? Theoretical sampling added 12 face to face interviews and 10 telephone interviews to the data. We managed this process as follows. The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2288/11/128/prepub. Interviewing participants with open-ended questions. The MPP included 22 private dental practices in NSW, randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group. PubMed Google Scholar. For this reason, we theoretically sampled participants from Dental Practice 2, where uptake of the MPP protocols had been very limited according to data from the RCT trial. This design was developed by sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss at the University of California San Francisco in the late 1960s. Arraiz concluded that by using this methodology in mathematics education, the researcher will be able to reflexively generate new theoretical postulates. This model includes relationships among concepts, consequences of the process, and variations in the process. As in any ethical study, we ensured that participation was voluntary, that participants could withdraw at any time, and that confidentiality was protected. 2. 2004, 2 (S1): 259-264. 1991, 19: 268-271. 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