NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE. Addition of flocculating agents (inorganic salt, organic polyelectrolyte, mineral hydrocolloid) is often necessary to achieve appropriate flocculation. 29. Manufacture of liquid dosage forms . 1 | P a g e Chapter 1: Introduction Fluorine is a common element that does not occur in the elemental state in nature because of its high reactivity. Enumerate the evaluation methods of suspension. 30. These materials are excellent flocculating agents. These agents act as flocculating agents because part of the chain is adsorbed on the particle surface, with the remaining parts projecting out into the dispersion medium. Singh et al. Classify emulsifying agents. One of the properties of a well-formulated suspension is that it can be easily re-suspended by the use of moderate agitation or shaking. Enumerate different types of emulsions. Examples of flocculating agents are: • Neutral electrolytes such as KCl, NaCl. There are suspensions that can be either flocculated or deflocculated. Mineral processingmetallurgyBritannica . Suspending agent excipients help active pharmaceutical ingredients stay suspended in the formulation and prevent caking at the bottom of the container. In coagulation, a non-toxic agglomerating agent such as Ferric Chloride (F e Cl) or alum is added to the water to bring all the suspended particles together to form clumps which can easily be removed from wastewater by filtration. Preparation of suspension Srijan App. Bridging between these latter portions leads to the formation of flocs. CMC could be used as flocculating agent, chelating agent, emulsifier, thickening agent, water-retaining agent, sizing agent, and film-forming material, and so on. Buffering agents. Formulation of Emulsions 14 Emulsification Emulsifier 15 HLB and Use of Surfactants Amphiphilic surfactants are characterized by the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) a relative ratio of polar and non-polar groups in the surfactant HLB ca. Bentonite, Powder, NF. Wetting agents. 5. • Sulfate, citrates, phosphates salts . polyacrylamide onto natural polymer like CMC. Technical Report All proprietary information has been removed from this document All proprietary information has been removed from this document. Flocculating agents: Prevent caking: Starch, Sodium alginate, Carbomer.etc. Ferrous Chloride, Crystal, Technical is used in the laboratory synthesis of iron complexes and as a reducing flocculating agent in wastewater treatment, Agar, Powder, NF . The most widely used controlled flocculating wetting and dispersing additives are ANTI-TERRA-204, which is used in a variety of ways in solvent-borne fillers and primer surfacers, and ANTI-TERRA-250, which is applied in aqueous systems. Surface-active agents suitable for stabilization of w/o and o/w emulsions have an HLB value varying between 3 and 6 and between 8 and 18, respectively, while surface-active agents having an HLB value varying between 7 and 9 are mainly utilized as food humectants. rhamnolipid as a flocculating agent could bring the remaining oil and also a small amount of insoluble heavy metals from the tailing sediment into the water. Filtration: Filtration is the most commonly used technique for separating the biomass and culture filtrate. References: 1. They act by reducing the zeta potential of suspended charged particles to zero and thus cause aggregation or floc formation of the particles. Deacetylated chitin to chitosan Decalcification-Dilute HCL Deproteination-Dilute NaOH Decolorization- … Lowering the surface tension lowers the energy required to spread drops onto a film, thus weakening the cohesive properties of the liquid and strengthening its adhesive properties. 3. Excipient used in aerosol Propellant: Developing pressure in container which expels the product: Trichloromonofluoromethane, Dichlorodifluoromethane, etc. Chelating agents. PDF | On Jan 1, 2009, Melgardt M De Villiers published Antimicrobial Preservatives | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate 64-68. have reported the synthesis and applications of graft copolymers of. 28. 2. 3.5 to 8 Water-in-Oil Emulsifiers HLB ca. Flocculation uses a chemical polymer (flocculating agent) to precipitate the clumped particles out of the water by forming larger particles, or flocs. They act by shrinking the ionic double layer, or neutralizing the surface charge of suspended particles, or bridging between particles. (cationic) in aqueous solution and is used as a flocculating agent to purify drinking water Chemistry linear co-polymer of (1-4) linked glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Flocculating agents decreases zeta potential of the suspended charged particle and thus cause . How does flocculation work in water treatment? Agar, Powder, NF is used in the pharmaceutical industry for many applications such as a suspending agent, surgical lubricants and in preparations of emulsions, suspensions and capsules. It accoun… Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural origin, capable of causing a large increase in a solution's viscosity, even at small concentrations.They are mostly botanical gums, found in the woody elements of plants or in seed coatings.. Human uses. aggregation (floc formation) of the particles. This process could be promoted by adding some flocculating agents or by making cells self-aggregating (Vandamme et al., 2013). Name any four flocculating agents used in preparation of suspension. Camphor oil has good selectivity and is mostly used to obtain highquality concentrates and priority flotation operations.get price. 7. • Flocculating agents are added to reduce the electrical force of repulsion at a certain concentration resulting in predominance of the attractive force causing the formation of loose aggregates. They learn how the amount of suspended solids in water is measured using the basic properties of matter and light. Preservatives. Name any two flocculating and deflocculating agents. Solvent systems. 32. Since gravity sedimentation depends on gravity and usually requires a long time for precipitation, it is more feasible for larger and heavy cells. Write any two advantages and disadvantages of emulsions. The main difference between flocculated and deflocculated suspension is that the rate of sedimentation in a flocculated suspension is rapid whereas the rate of sedimentation in a deflocculated suspension is slow. Title Biomass… - Samy Kamkar - AppSec California 2016 - Duration: 51:12. These aggregates settle quickly, and are not bound These are most often metallic salts that can form gel-like hydroxide precipitates, often with the aid of added calcium hydroxide (quicklime) if pH of the water must be raised. In addition, they learn about the types of solids that can be found in water and the reasons that some are easier to remove than others. CMC is also widely applied in fields such as electronics, pesticides, leather, plastics, printing, ceramics, and the daily-use chemical industry. Flocculating agents are chemical additives that cause suspended solids to form aggregates called flocs. These are neutral electrolytes that are capable of preventing caking of suspended solids. Dissolved heavy metal ions and rhamnolipid in water could be removed through micellar- enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) process (between 30% for Cd and 100% for V, and 97.5% for rhamnolipid). Flocculating / suspending agents. Wetting agents are substances that reduce the surface tension of water to allow it to spread drops onto a surface, increasing the spreading abilities of a liquid. 26. That can happen spontaneously or due to the presence of flocculating agents. M.PHARM 2nd sem. In such case, the efficiency of CS as the flocculating agent is greatly reduced. BYK-P 104 is an additive which has a much less controlling flocculating effect. The usual method of removing turbidity is to add a flocculating agent (flocculant). Students experience firsthand one of the most common water treatment types in the industry today, flocculants. Tonicity adjusting agents. 4. Flocculating agents. Foaming agent: Foaming agent for separation of gold and silver ores, commonly used are 2 # oil, turpentine, camphor oil, dipyridine and formic acid, the amount of which is generally 20100 g/t. Flocculating Agents flocculating agents decreases zeta potential of the suspended charged particle and thus cause aggregation (flock formation) of the particles. 8. Antioxidants. 1 to 3.5 Antifoams HLB ca. Selon le diamètre et l'épaisseur des clapets on obtient plus ou moins de résistance au passage de l'huile. 27. , Surfactants, Polymeric flocculating agents. Flocculating Agent --Zeta-potential 13 II. 31. 6. Define emulsion with example. Particle and thus cause aggregation ( flock formation ) of the most common water treatment types in formulation. Byk-P 104 is an additive which has a much less controlling flocculating effect Vandamme et al., ). Of removing turbidity is to add a flocculating agent ( flocculant ) these materials are excellent flocculating agents flocculating or... 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