S. Turbidity Alum PAC % PAC Consumption No. 10. Measure the alkal inity of the sample with the largest alum concentration. Aluminium sulfate (alum), the most widely used coagulant in carefully remove the supernat ant from each beaker and de termine the turbidity in each of the samples. The required alkalinity may be naturally present in the water or it has to be added through dosage of lime, Ca(0H)2 or sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 (also called soda ash). Based on the experiment conducted, the graph of turbidity vs alum dosage has been plotted and mark as a Figure 1. Settled Turbidity, NTU % TOC Removal Alum Dosage, mg/L (db) Settled Turbidity and % TOC Removal vs. Alum Dosage. Plot and analyze graphs of (i) turbidity vs pH, (ii) log (alum dose [M]) vs pH, and (iii) turbidity vs log (alum dose [M]). 6-Discussion: Coagulation units require precise dosage control in order to remain effective. Performance vs. Alum Dosage. Resultant pH after treatment No. It is not normally necessary to … fig. For example, a dose of 12 mg/L PACl (as 100%) was required for treatment of a coloured, low turbidity water (Otway region, Victoria) compared to similar performance obtained when using an alum dose of 55 mg/L, and 1. GRAPH:- Plot a graph between the coagulant dose applied and turbidity of coagulated sample, by taking turbidity value on Y-axis and Alum dose on X-axis; as shown below. Record all the readings. 7. In-line coagulant injection facility is an innovative application technology in restoring Eutrophic lakes. Data Analysis: 1. In other words, results showed that alum dosage range for good coagulation was almost wide in this study. Alum is the most effective for clearing clay turbidity (general term for describing the cloudiness or muddiness of water) from a pond. 2. Where the raw water quality changes more quickly, the coagulant dose can be calculated using empirical algorithms, typically based on on-line raw water colour or UVa measurements and sometimes including corrections for other parameters including turbidity (van Leeuwen, 2003; Letterman, 2010). The range in raw water turbidity is narrow but increases of up to 200 ntu have been documented due to storm events. 800 80 40 50.0 4. Repeat experiment with six new alum dosages (25 mg/L, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1000). Repeat the experiment of Set 1 from steps 1 to 9. When applying Aluminum Sulfate, it’s recommended that the pH is between 6.5 and 8.2. PACl and ACH had similar percent removals for color and turbidity achieving consistent percent removals of 95% and 45%, respectively, but PACl was less effective than ACH at removing organics. Comparative dose to bring down the turbidity to 5 NTU. 10mg/L Alum Dose, 40.6, Addition of 10mg/l of alum dose removed 13.61% or turbid. The coagulation efficiency of alum remained almost constant within the dosage range of 10 to 40 mg/L at pH range of 4-8 (Fig. 550 40 35 87.5 3. 0mg/L Alum Dose (control), 47, Being the control experiment, no percentage of turbidity got removed. NTU mg/L mg/L against % Alum Consumption 1. USALCO Aluminum Sulfate (Alum), is a high quality, iron-free, clear solution that meets the specifications of the American Water Works Association Standard B403-16 and complies with the requirements of NSF/ANSI/CAN 60 at a maximum dosage of 150 mg/L. For pump selection, it is compatible with EPDM, Viton, and all the liquid end materials. 3) Linear regression of turbidity and optimal dose However, optimum coagulation occurs when The best performance of alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. From the results obtained in the previous sections, the optimum dose of Alum Coagulant is 20mg/l. Determine the optimum alum dose in mg/L as Al and as alum. Then determine optimum coagulant dose from the graph which corresponds to minimum turbidity. If the pH of the water is between 4 and 5, alum is generally present in the form of positive ions (i.e., Al(OH)2+, Al8(OH)4+, and Al3+). Find the residual turbidity of the supernatant using nephelometer. The benefits of alum are that it is widely available, is proven to reduce turbidity, and is inexpensive. The pH was targeted from 3 to 8 using a fixed alum dose. S. Dose of Aluminium Concn. Choose the sample with least turbidity and its corresponding coagulant dosage as the optimal coagulant dosage. Table 5. With each optimal final turbidity and dose of coagulant obtained, the correspondent graph was made in order to analyze the results to determine if the data presented a linear behavior, which was determined by the use of a linear regression. Measure the alkalinity, turbidity, and pH of each jar at the end of 30 minutes. For good coagulation the optimal dose of coagulant should be fed into the water and An enhanced coagulation with alum was then conducted by standard jar test to optimize coagulation pH and alum dose. The river is a stable raw water source with a low average incoming turbidity of 6.0 ntu. More typical storm water turbidity ranges are from 20 to 40 ntu. dosage vs. zeta potential and turbidity it can be seen that when the zeta potential of the dispersion results in a near zero zeta potential, the turbidity, or cloudiness, of the mixture is also nearly zero. When testing samples with only kaolin turbidity the used alum dose ranges from 10 mg/L to 30 mg/L. Optimum removal of turbidity (98%) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (70%) was achieved for 100 mg alum L-1 at pH 5. 1). 44 21 Alum and Lime Dosage vs. Cationic Polymer Dosage - Seattle Pilot Plant 47 22 Seattle Pilot Plant Preferred Chemical Treatments - Alum Plus Cationic Polymer 47 23 Catfloc T-l Dosages and Turbidity - Seattle Pilot Plant 48 24 573 C Dosages and Turbidity - Seattle Pilot Plant 51 25 Comparison of One vs. For example, alum reacts to form aluminium-hydroxide floc, Al(OH)3, a gelatinous precipitate. Repeat steps 1-10 with higher dose of alum, if necessary. Select the optimum dosage on the basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Turbidity variations vs Alum coagulant dosage Alum coagulant A Alum coagulant B Coagulant (mg/l) Turbidity (NTU) Figure 2: Variation of turbidity in different jars for both sample, A and B using Alum coagulant. #4 0 10 20 30 40 50. Analysis of zeta potential vs. coagulant dosage results are used to evaluate the effectiveness of various chemicals (typical examples are The plant has a 176 million gallon raw water storage facility which is seasonally dosed with a preoxidant, potassium permanganate, to control algae and associated taste… From the graph patterns obtained in first trail of jar test, it Water is drawn from the Delaware River twice daily as the tide flows upriver. It happen when the amount of 60ml and 100ml of Al 2 SO 4 is added. However, over-dosing was 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5. 2200 65 40 61.5 Table 6. Alum was once the most common coagulant used in West Virginia, but today it is being replaced by the more prevalent use of polymers. The application is usually a few hundred pounds per surface acre. 6 Page Exp. Observation At an influent turbidity of 100 NTU, effluent turbidity was strongly correlated with coagulant dose at coagulant doses of 1 to 7.5 mg / L alum. Alkalinity Measurement 1. Add 50 mL of water samp le (Vs) to an erlenmeyer flask 2. Laboratory studies have shown that alum is effective at reducing turbidity and chlorine demand 3 . Students will graph turbidity and precipitation in Larry's Creek Watershed and identify an area in the graph where turbidity is not caused by rain and is most likely cause by a nearby natural gas drilling leak. Residual Aluminium with PAC/alum. 7 shows the average results of Jar tests were performed with and without pH control. The dosage of alum, which represents least turbidity, gives Optimum Coagulant Dosage (O.C.D.). This trend is a sign that sweep flocculation is the main coagulation mechanism occurring. In bulk water treatment, the jar tests are repeated with varied alum dose until the ideal dose … Deter mine the pH of each t reated water sample. alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. Plot a graph with alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis. Present all data in tabular format. Diminishing improvement in turbidity removal was observed for coagulant doses above 15 mg / L alum for both 100 and 500 NTU. The drawback of alum is that the necessary dosage varies unpredictably. Minimum turbidity represent that the flocculation and coagulation happen effectively which cause the water to be clear. Mixing Alum with water about 8.2 can be toxic to fish. 2. with poly aluminum chloride and alum showed that the efficiency of the removal of all three; turbidity, color and TSS was higher by using of poly aluminum chloride than alum, with considering that, the dosage of alum was nearly five times as poly aluminum chloride, (Ghafari et al., 2009). ABSTRACT The success of surface water treatment strongly depends on the effectiveness of coagulant performance. In this technology, guidelines for dose calculation and application are lacking. Sample ID, Turbidity (FAU) and Remarks: Tap water, 0.91, Tap water is distilled hence a minimal amount of turbidity. Settled Turbidity TOC Removal. It show that the minimum turbidity which is 0 NTU happen two time. Prepare a graph of residual turbidity on the left-hand ordinate and UV254 fraction remaining on the right-hand ordinate versus alum dose. 150 35 25 71.4 2. Plots of turbidity versus coagulant dose for Water A with alum, Water B with ferric chloride and Water B with alum all showed a continual decrease in turbidity with an increase in coagulant dose. 4.1 Turbidity Removal Low Turbidity (10 To 50 NTU) The results of the dosage optimization of MO using jar test is a dose of 32 mg/L using 25 % w/w oil extracted MO seed, MO reduced the turbidity from 50 to 4.3 NTU, corresponding to a turbidity removal of 91.4%. 6. The optimum alum dosage was lower (1 g L −1) which was the lowest required dosage obtained the highest turbidity removal. Alum dose and pH control of coagulation were found to be important factors governing DOM removal. When testing samples with organic material, the used alum dose ranges from 50 mg/L to 130 mg/L. Plot graph of coagulant dosage vs. color, turbidity, aluminum and TSS 7.5.2 Set 2: Variation of pH (optimum dosage of PAC) 1. The study showed that the removal efficiencies for turbidity and optimum alum dosage were (93% at 20 mg/l, 92% at 20 mg/l, 85% at 30 mg/l, 88% at 30 mg/l and 89.3% at 30 mg/l) respectively. With the concentration range of “alum” from 5mg/l to 100 mg/l, it is giving percentage turbidity removal above 87% for all of those concentrations. turbidity and S4 which had the maximum phosphorus concentration at inlet used an Alum dose of above 20 mg/L was sufficient to drop TP concentration to less than 0.025 mg/L. when alum is used for coagulation because the solubility of the aluminum species in water is pH dependent. Aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 3 or alum): Aluminum sulfate (commonly called alum) is used as a coagulant, causing colloidal particles to clump together and settle out of the water. 11. 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Used alum dose in mg/L as Al and as alum previous sections, the optimum dose. Left-Hand ordinate and UV254 fraction remaining on the effectiveness of coagulant performance 6.5... The success of surface water treatment, the jar tests were performed with and pH! Results to alum at an turbidity vs alum dose graph dose, ♦ lower doses are required to equivalent! At the end of 30 minutes determine optimum coagulant dosage as the optimal coagulant dosage (.! Linear regression of turbidity Vs alum dosage has been plotted and mark as a Figure 1 Al!

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